Page 2 of 215
We would wish to thank all the organisations that provided course
material for their permission in using this material of their
products and other specialist in their field for their assistance
in producing the content for the course
David Ware has more than 30 years’ experience in Fire Safety and
has focussed his knowledge and experience in producing the content
for this course. He has a first class honours degree in Fire
Engineering and is a Fellow of the Institute of Fire
Engineers.
The aim of this course is to enable the student to be able to
determine the five functional requirements of Part B. It will go
through all the functional requirements in turn and give examples
of how to determine their requirements. You will then go through
exercises to demonstrate understanding and view the model
answers.
Fire Risk Consultancy Limited Acknowledgements
Author
Page 3 of 215
This workbook has been produced to supplement the online course
“Building Regulations Part B”. The workbook is broken down into a
number of modules. The candidate simply works through the modules
whilst watching the online course.
The candidates will each be given an individual log in with an
individual password. They will have access for the duration of
their apprenticeship to complete all the core modules and the other
selected modules. There are a number of self-assessment tests at
the end of each module to confirm understanding.
Further information
www.frconline.co.uk
[email protected]
Module 7.1 Introduction 42
Module 7.3 B2 Internal fire spread (Linings) 136
Module 7.4 B3 Internal fire spread (Structure) 138
Module 7.5 B4 External fire spread 157
Module 7.6 B5 Access and Facilities for the Fire Service 241
Contents
Page 5 of 215
This module explain the steps involved in approving the fire safety
aspects of building work and
the interaction between building regulations and other statutory
fire safety requirements in
England and Wales.
It aims to ensure that developers and designers will be able to
receive all the fire safety
information relevant to Building Regulations and other statutory
approvals in time to avoid
abortive work. If followed there should be no need for extra
building work to be done at the end
of a building project, before the building can be occupied for its
intended purpose
Module 7-1
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Building regulations Material alteration Liaison between bodies
Consultation The approvals process
Module 1.1 Introduction
Page 6 of 215
To confirm your understanding of the module, now attempt the
questions below. Once completed you can view the model answers at
the back of the workbook
1. What are the five functional requirements of building
regulations?
2. What are the 3 fire safety approaches available to the
designer?
3. Who are the parties that should consult when passing plans to
comply with building
regulations?
4. Even if there is no formal requirement to consult, consultation
may still be desirable in
which cases?
5. Article 35 provides for appeals to a magistrates’ court, what
must be clearly set out
regarding the provisions of the Order in issue?
Module 1.1 Revision
Page 7 of 215
This module goes through all the steps required to demonstrate
compliance with B1 Means of
Escape utilising Approved Document B and BS9999 Fire Safety in the
Design, Management
and Use of Buildings. It covers both horizontal and vertical escape
requirements.
The Ten Step Guide Politicians Only Trust Enemy Politicians So We
Prevent Further Enemies Step One Purpose group Step Two Occupant
capacity Step Three Travel distances Step Four Exit number and
width Step Five Protections of escape routes Step Six Staircase
number Step Seven Staircase width Step Eight Protection of
staircases Step Nine Final exit width
Module 1-2 B1 Means of Escape
Sam ple
Step Ten External escape routes
This module goes through all the steps required to demonstrate
compliance with B1 Means of
Escape utilising Approved Document B and BS9999 Fire safety in the
Design, Management and
Use of Buildings. It covers both horizontal and vertical escape
requirements.
Module 1-2-1
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Measurements Occupant capacity Area of building Height of
building
..
Module 1-2-2
.
.
Module 1-2-3
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Adequate Fire Alarm Escape Lighting The Ten Step Guide to Means of
Escape to ADB Step One Step Two Step Three Step Four
Sam ple
Module 1-2-4
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Step Five Protection of corridors Small Premises Progressive
horizontal evacuation
Module 1-2-5
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Step six and Step seven Simultaneous Evacuation Discounting
Module 1-2-6
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Phased evacuation
Module 1-2-7
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Step 8 protection of stairways Step 9 Final Exits Step 10 External
escape routes
Sam ple
Module 1-2-8
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Determining the Means of Escape to BS9999 The Ten Step Guide Step
One Step Two
Module17-2-9
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Step three - Travel distances Step Two
Module 1-2-10
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Step Four - Exits
Module 1-2-11
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Exercises Licensing
Module 1-2-12
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Step Five - Protection of corridors Seven step guide to
staircases
Sam ple
Module 1-2-13
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Phased evacuation
Module 1-2-14
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Exercises 74 -83
Module 1-2-15
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Phased evacuation exercises
Module 1-2-16
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Vertical Escape - Article of consideration
. .
Module 1-2-17
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Step 8 - Protection of stairs Step 9 - Final Exits Step 10 -
External escape routes.
Module 1-2-18
On completion of this module you will have a good understanding
of:
Management of Fire Safety Exercises using the ten step guide
Sam ple
Exercise 1
Determine the number of occupants to be evacuated in the following
examples?
Module 1.2 Revision
Exercise 2
Determine the number of occupants to be evacuated in the following
examples?
Exercise 3
Determine the number of occupants to be evacuated in the following
examples?
Sam ple
Exercise 4
Determine the number of occupants to be evacuated in the following
examples?
Exercise 5
Determine the number of occupants to be evacuated in the following
examples?
Sam ple
Exercise 6
Determine the number of people that can be accommodated by the
number of exits shown in the following?
Exercise 7
Determine the number of people that can be accommodated by the
number of exits shown in the following?
Sam ple
Exercise 8
Determine the number of people that can be accommodated by the
number of exits shown in the following?
Exercise 9
Determine the number of people that can be accommodated by the
number of exits shown in the following?
Sam ple
Exercise 10
Determine the number of people that can be accommodated by the
number of exits shown in the following?
Exercise 11
Determine the number of people that can be accommodated by the
number of exits shown in the following?
Sam ple
Small premises
If the premises match the definition and criteria to be considered
a small premises then a reduction in the number of exits and stairs
can be applied. Below is a checklist to assist you in determining
whether a premises can be determined as a small premises.
Small Premises Checklist
Max basement, ground and first floor
Single occupancy
No storey over 280m2
2. Is it defined as a Bar or restaurant?
Yes proceed to Q3 No Proceed to Q4
3. Does it meet the following criteria?
Less than 30 people on each storey
Or 100 people on ground floor if independent escape route
Yes proceed to Q5 No Normal ADB
4. Are the premises used for storage and or sale of highly
flammable materials or liquids?
No proceed to Q5 Yes Normal ADB
5. Are the premises in a covered shopping mall?
No proceed to Q6 Yes Consult BS9999
6. Is the construction undivided?
Yes proceed to Q7 No Normal ADB
Sam ple
Yes proceed to Q8 No Normal ADB
8. Does the inner room have automatic fire detection or a vision
panel or there is no inner room?
Yes proceed to Q9 No Normal ADB
9. Is the stair protected?
Yes proceed to Q10 No Proceed to Q11
10. Does the stair comply with the travel distances in table
5?
No Normal ADB Yes Layout to comply with diagram 18
(Must be a protected stair if the premises are used as a restaurant
or bar)
11. Do the premises comprise more than 2 storeys?
No Diagram 22 applies Yes Diagram 23 applies
Determine if the following premises can be termed “Small premises”
and therefore benefit from reductions in the number of exits and
stairs?
Exercise 12
A 2 storey office with storey floor area of 270m2. The premises are
used for the sale of flammable substances.
Exercise 13
A building consisting of basement, ground and first floor. Each
storey is 200m2 and on the 2nd floor there is an unenclosed
storeroom.?
Exercise 14
Sam ple
Page 20 of 215
A building consisting of basement, ground and first floor. Each
storey is 290m2 and on the 2nd floor there is a restaurant with
seating for 30 people.?
Exercise 15
A shop consisting of ground and first floor with a floor area of
270m2. There are 30 people on the first floor and the ground floor
can accommodate 90 people. The ground floor has its own independent
escape route and the staircase is unprotected. The travel distance
to the staircase on the first floor is 17m and the ground floor is
20m
Exercise 16
A 2 storey restaurant comprising of 88m2 with an open kitchen on
the first floor. The premises have a single unprotected staircase
which discharges within 3m from the staircase. The travel distance
to the staircase on the first floor is 16.5m
Exercise 17
A 3 storey office consisting of ground, first and second storey
each 90m2. There is a single protected staircase and the travel
distance to each staircase is 16m
Sam ple
Vertical Escape
Exercise 18
Determine the occupancy for a 3 storey office each floor covering
644m2
Sam ple
Exercise 19
Determine the occupancy for a 4 storey office each floor covering
710m2
Exercise 20
Determine the occupancy for a 3 storey shop each floor covering
800m2
Sam ple
Exercise 21
Determine the occupancy for a 4 storey building with top 2 floors
being used as an
office and lower 2 floors used as shop, all floors occupy
1100m2
Exercise 22
Determine the occupancy for a 8 storey office building with a
conference facility on the
third floor, all floors cover 1200m2 Sam ple
Page 24 of 215
Determine the minimum number of staircases in the following
building?
4 storey office building with a top floor of 10m. The single
direction of travel exceeds 18m?
Exercise 24
Determine the minimum number of staircases in the following
building?
8 storey office building with a top floor of 22m. The number of
occupants are as shown?
Sam ple
Determine the minimum number of staircases in the following
building?
4 storey office building with a top floor of 10m. The number of
occupants are as shown?
Sam ple
Exercise 26
Determine width of unprotected staircase with 340 people located in
a 5 storey building
with the ground floor having its own Means of Escape?
Sam ple
Exercise 27
Determine width of staircase with 600 people located in a 7 storey
building with the
ground floor having its own MOE
Sam ple
Exercise 28
Determine width of staircase with 1050 people located in a 11
storey building with the
ground floor having its own Means of Escape?
Sam ple
Exercise 29
Determine width of staircase with 210 people located in a 3 storey
building with the
ground floor having its own MOE
Sam ple
Exercise 30
Determine width of staircase with 720 people located in a 7 storey
building with the
ground floor having its own Means of Escape?
Sam ple
Formula Method
As an alternative to table 7 you can use the formula below
n
Exercise 31
Determine the width of the unprotected staircase for a building
with the following
parameters using the formula below?
Exercise 32
Determine the width of the unprotected staircase for a building
with the following
parameters using the formula below?
Sam ple
Exercise 33
Determine the width of the unprotected staircase for a building
with the following
parameters using the formula below?
Sam ple
Exercise 34
Determine the width of the unprotected staircase for a building
with the following
parameters using the formula below?
Sam ple
Exercise 35
Determine the width of the unprotected staircase for a building
with the following
parameters using the formula below?
Sam ple
Exercise 36
Determine the width of the unprotected staircase for a building
with the following
parameters using the formula below?
Sam ple
Page 38 of 215
Determine the width of the unprotected staircase for a building
with the following
parameters using the formula below?
Exercise 38
Sam ple
Page 39 of 215
Determine the width of the staircase in a building with a phased
evacuation strategy with the following occupancy numbers and
storeys. The staircases have lobby approach?
Exercise 39
Sam ple
Page 40 of 215
Determine the width of the staircase in a building with a phased
evacuation strategy with the following occupancy numbers and
storeys. The staircases have lobby approach?
Exercise 40
Sam ple
Page 41 of 215
Determine the width of the staircases In the following office
building using the 7 step guide?
a) 5 storey office building with top floor of 17m. Each floor is
720m2. The staircase is unprotected. Ground floor has independent
escape route. Simultaneous evacuation
b) Determine width if staircases were protected with lobby
approach
Exercise 41
Sam ple
Page 42 of 215
Determine the minimum number and width of the staircases in the
following office building with a simultaneous evacuation? The
height to the top floor is 24m.
Exercise 42
Sam ple
Page 43 of 215
Determine the minimum number and width of the staircases in this
building using the 7 step guide. The height to the top floor is
11m.
Exercise 43
Sam ple
Page 44 of 215
Determine the width of the staircases in the following building
with a simultaneous evacuation using the 7 step guide? The height
of the top floor is 21m.
Exercise 44
Sam ple
Page 45 of 215
The following is a shopping centre. The height to the top floor is
17m. The building has a simultaneous evacuation strategy. Determine
the width of the staircases
a) With all staircases unprotected
b) With staircases protected
Page 46 of 215
Where a ground floor storey exit shares a final exit with a stair
via ground floor lobby, the width of the final exit should be
sufficient to enable a maximum evacuation flow rate equal to or
greater than that from the storey exit and stair combined. As long
as it meets certain criteria as shown below
This is the formula to apply
W – Width of final exit (m)
N – Number of people served by ground floor
S – Staircase width (m)
Page 47 of 215
Determine the width of the final exit of the following building
using the merging width formula?
Answer
Page 48 of 215
Determine the width of the final exit of the following building
using the merging width formula?
Answer
Page 49 of 215
Determine the width of the final exit of the following building
using the merging width formula?
Answer
Page 50 of 215
Determine the width of the final exit of the following building
using the merging width formula?
Answer
Page 51 of 215
Determine the width of the final exit of the following building
using the merging width formula?
Answer
Page 52 of 215
Determine the width of the final exit of the following building
using the merging width formula?
Answer
Page 53 of 215
Determine the width of the final exit of the following building
using the merging width formula?
Answer
Page 54 of 215
Determine the width of the final exit of the following building
using the merging width formula?
Answer
Exercise 53
Determine the number of occupants in the following buildings. Use
table 10 from BS9999.
Sam ple
Exercise 54
Determine the number of occupants in the following buildings. Use
table 10 from BS9999?
Sam ple
Exercise 55
Determine the number of occupants in the following buildings. Use
table 10 from BS9999?
Sam ple
Exercise 56
Determine the number of occupants in the following buildings. Use
table 10 from BS9999?
Sam ple
Exercise 57
Determine the number of occupants in the following buildings. Use
table 10 from BS9999?
Sam ple
Exercise 58
Determine the number of occupants in the following buildings. Use
table 10 from BS9999?
Sam ple
Exercise 59
Determine the travel distance of a Bar with no sprinklers. A
distinct benefit of early warning has been demonstrated and a
ceiling height of 4.3m. Alcohol is consumed and it has been decided
to take it into account when determining the means of escape.
Exercise 60
Skating rink with no sprinklers. A distinct benefit of AFD has been
demonstrated and a ceiling height of 5.6m No alcohol is
consumed.
Exercise 61
Determine the travel distance of a Bingo hall with no sprinklers. A
distinct benefit of AFD has been demonstrated and a ceiling height
of 3.2m No alcohol is consumed
Exercise 62
Shop with no sprinklers. A distinct benefit of AFD has been
demonstrated and a ceiling height of 4.3m No alcohol is
consumed
Note:
1. If sprinklers are installed the risk profile will drop by one
fire growth rate.eg. B2 – B1, A3-A2 etc
2. Where a clear benefit resulting from the addition of detection
and warning is demonstrated and is appropriate to the
circumstances, a 15% increase in allowable travel distances and a
15% reduction in door width, corridor width and stair width can be
applied.
3. For the risk profile you should determine it from the client or
apply table 5 4. The floor space factor can be given by the client
or apply table 10 5. Door width with minimum measures – table 13 6.
Ceiling height benefit – table 16 7. Door width with additional
measures – table 18
Sam ple
Exercise 63
Determine the aggregate exit width for a Bar with no sprinklers.
Floor space area 700 m2. The building has early warning and a
ceiling height of 5.3m. It has been decided to use the floor space
factor in table 10 for the whole of the available floor
space.
Exercise 64
.
Exercise 65
Determine the aggregate exit width for a Bingo hall with no
sprinklers. Floor space area 1234 m2. Early warning and a ceiling
height of 4.3m? Sam
ple
Page 66 of 215
Exercise 66 Determine the occupancy for the following 3 storey open
plan office building?
Exercise 67 Determine the occupancy for a 4 storey closed plan
office each floor covering 710m2?
Sam ple
Page 67 of 215
Exercise 68 Determine the occupancy for a 3 storey shop each floor
covering 800m2?
Exercise 69 Determine the occupancy for a 4 storey building with
top 2 floors being used as an open plan office and lower 2 floors
used as shop, all floors occupy 1100m2
Sam ple
Page 68 of 215
Exercise 70 Determine the occupancy for an 8 storey closed plan
office building with a conference facility on the third floor, all
floors cover 1200m2
Sam ple
Exercise 71
Determine the minimum number of staircases in the following
building? 4 storey office building with a top floor of 10m. The
single direction of travel is exceeded?
Exercise 72
Determine the minimum number of staircases in the following
building? 8 storey office building with a top floor of 22m. The
number of occupants are as shown?
Sam ple
Page 70 of 215
Exercise 73 Determine the minimum number of staircases in the
following building? 4 storey office building with a top floor of
10m. The number of occupants are as shown?
Sam ple
Page 71 of 215
Exercise 74 Determine width of unprotected staircase with 340
people in an office located in a 5 storey building with the ground
floor having its own MOE. 340 people 4 floors served. The building
has early warning and a ceiling height of 2.8m
Sam ple
Page 72 of 215
Exercise 75 Determine width of staircase with 600 people located in
a 7 storey business centre with the ground floor having its own
MOE. 600 people 6 floors served. The building has early warning and
ceiling height of 4.2m
Sam ple
Exercise 76
Determine width of staircase in an 11 storey sprinklered office
with the ground floor having its own MOE. The building has lobby
protection. The building has early warning and a ceiling height of
3.2m
Sam ple
Exercise 77
Determine width of staircase with 400 people located in a 3 storey
library reading area with the ground floor having its own MOE. The
building has early warning and a ceiling height of 4.2m
Sam ple
Page 75 of 215
Exercise 78 Determine width of staircase with 720 people located in
a 7 storey restaurant with the ground floor having its own MOE. 720
people 6 floors served. The building has early warning and a
ceiling height of 3.1m
Sam ple
Exercise 79
Determine width of staircase with 600 people located in a 6 storey
office building with the ground floor having its own MOE. The
building has early warning and a ceiling height of 2.8m
Sam ple
Page 77 of 215
Exercise 80 Determine width of staircases with 1000 people located
in a 6 storey sprinklered office building with the ground floor
having its own MOE. The 2 storey basement has 50 people on each
floor. The building has early warning and a ceiling height of
3.1m
Sam ple
Page 78 of 215
Exercise 81 Determine width of staircases with 1350 people located
in an 8 storey sprinklered business centre with the ground floor
having its own MOE. The building has lobby approach. The building
has early warning and a ceiling height of 3.1m
Sam ple
Exercise 82
Determine width of staircase with 1500 people located in a 4 storey
sprinklered shop with the ground floor having its own MOE. The
building has early warning and a ceiling height of 4.3m
Sam ple
Exercise 83
Determine width of staircase in a 6 storey banking hall with
sprinklers with the ground floor having its own MOE. The building
has early warning and a ceiling height of 2.8m
Sam ple
Page 81 of 215
Exercise 84 Determine the width of the staircase in an 11 storey
sprinklered library reading area with a phased evacuation strategy?
The building has a protected lobby approach. The building has early
warning and a 3.1m ceiling height.
Sam ple
Page 83 of 215
Exercise 85 Determine the width of the staircases in an 11 storey
office with a phased evacuation strategy? The building has a
protected lobby approach. The building has early warning and a 2.8m
ceiling height.
Sam ple
Page 85 of 215
Exercise 86 Determine the width of the staircases in an 11 storey
office with a phased evacuation strategy? The building has a
protected corridor. The building has early warning and a 2.8m
ceiling height.
Sam ple
Exercise 87
Determine the width of the unprotected staircases in the following
open plan office building using the 7 step guide?
a) 6 storey open plan office building with top floor of 16.8m.
Ground floor has independent escape route
The building has the benefit of early warning and each floor is
3.1m high
Sam ple
Exercise 88
Determine the width of the staircases in the following business
centre using the 7 step guide? It has been decided to adopt a
phased evacuation. Lobby approach fitted. The building has the
benefit of early warning and each floor is 3.1m high
Sam ple
Page 91 of 215
Exercise 89 a) Determine the width of the unprotected staircases in
the following 5 storey shop using the 7 step guide? The building
has the benefit of early warning and each floor is 3.2m high b)
What size would staircase 1 and 2 be if the building were
sprinklered?
Sam ple
Merging Width
Where a ground floor storey exit shares a final exit with a stair
via ground floor lobby, the width of the final exit should be
sufficient to enable a maximum evacuation flow rate equal to or
greater than that from the storey exit and stair combined. As long
as it meets certain criteria as shown below
This is the formula to apply
W – Width of final exit (m)
N – Number of people served by ground floor
S – Staircase width (m) Required width.
80/)]60()5.2/[( SNW Sam ple
Page 93 of 215
Exercise 90
Determine the final exit width with a staircase which has a
required width of 1600mm and there are 93 people entering at ground
floor level?
80/)]60()5.2/[( SNW
Exercise 91
Determine the final exit width with a staircase which has a
required width of 1100mm and there are 44 people entering at ground
level
80/)]60()5.2/[( SNW Sam ple
Page 95 of 215
Exercise 92
Determine the final exit width with the following parameters? The
required staircase width is only 740mm but this had to be increased
to 1000mm. 90 people are entering from the ground floor.
80/)]60()5.2/[( SNW
Exercise 93
Determine the final exit width with the following parameters? The
required staircase width is only 830mm but this had to be increased
to 1000mm. 70 people are entering from the ground floor.
80/)]60()5.2/[( SNW Sam ple
Page 97 of 215
Exercise 94
Determine the final exit width with the following parameters? The
required staircase width is only 850mm but this had to be increased
to 1000mm. 60 people are entering from the ground floor.
80/)]60()5.2/[( SNW Sam ple
Page 98 of 215
Exercise 95
Determine the Means of Escape requirements for the following 5
storey office building using the ten step guide?
The building is to have an L2 fire alarm system.
Ground floor has independent escape routes
First to ground floor have the same layout as shown below
Sam ple
Exercise 96
Determine the Means of Escape for the single storey bar with
dimensions of 60m x 30m using the ten step guide?
There is an L1 fire alarm, the ceiling is 4.7m high.
Use the following floor space factors
Queuing area around bar = 0.3m2
Seating area = 1.0m2
Sam ple
Page 100 of 215
This module goes how to comply with Part B2 Internal Fire Spread
due to the linings. The control of the flammability and other
properties of wall and ceiling linings in rooms and other spaces is
an important part of building regulations. It is essential to
protect the escape routes and this includes the linings of walls
and ceilings.
Module 1-3-1
History The control problem Meeting the requirement Upgrading
linings
Module 1.3 Internal Fire Spread (Linings)
Sam ple
Page 101 of 215
To confirm your understanding of the module, now attempt the
questions below. Once completed you can view the model answers at
the back of the workbook
1. What is the main requirement for the internal linings?
2. What is the definition of a lining?
3. What are the main properties of a lining that you are concerned
with?
4. What materials are considered as non-combustible?
5. What is a material of limited combustibility?
6. What is the definition of a wall?
7. What does the definition of a wall not cover?
8. What is the definition of a ceiling?
9. Before you decide on the level of upgrade to linings what should
you consider?
10. What records should be kept by the responsible person with
regards to the linings?
Module 1.3 Revision
Page 102 of 215
This module will go through B3 Internal Fire Spread (Structure and
covers the issues of compartmentation and sub division of
buildings.
Module 1-4-1
Meeting the requirement History Elements of Structure Fire
resistance requirements to ADB Raised storage areas
.
.
This module covers the following topics:
..
Sam ple
This module covers the following topics:
Construction of compartment walls and floors Junctions of
compartment walls and floors Fire doors Hold open devices Smoke
seals Extensive cavities Fire stopping
Module 1-4-4
Compliance with BS9999 Non load bearing elements Fire resistance
Ventilation factor
Module 1-4-5
This module covers the following topics:
Compartment limits Protected stairways Openings Fire doors Glazing
in fire doors Summary
Sam ple
Exercise 1
Determine whether the raised storage area should be considered as a
floor or as a gallery
Total floor area 840m2
Manual fire alarm
Module 1.4 Revision
Exercise 2
Determine whether the raised storage area should be considered as a
floor or as a gallery
Total floor area 170m2
Manual fire alarm
No public allowed
Exercise 3
Determine whether the raised storage area should be considered as a
floor or as a gallery
Total floor area 300m2
Automatic fire alarm
No public allowed
Exercise 4
Determine whether the raised storage area should be considered as a
floor or as a gallery
Total floor area 650m2
Automatic fire alarm
No public allowed
Exercise 5
Determine whether the raised storage area should be considered as a
floor or as a gallery
Total floor area 650m2
Manual fire alarm
Exercise 6
Determine whether or not the following are considered to be
ancillary or not. This will determine whether or not
compartmentation is required.
Exercise 7
Determine whether or not the following are considered to be
ancillary or not. This will determine whether or not
compartmentation is required.
Sam ple
Exercise 8
Determine whether or not the following are considered to be
ancillary or not. This will determine whether or not
compartmentation is required.
Exercise 9
Determine whether or not the following are considered to be
ancillary or not. This will determine whether or not
compartmentation is required.
Sam ple
Exercise 10
.
Exercise 11
Determine the location of compartment walls and floors and the
required fire resistance of the following unsprinklered
building?
Sam ple
Exercise 12
Determine the location of compartment walls and floors and the
required fire resistance of the following unsprinklered
building?
Exercise 13
Determine the location of compartment walls and floors and the
required fire resistance of the following unsprinklered
building?
Sam ple
Exercise 14
Determine the location of compartment walls and floors and the
required fire resistance of the following unsprinklered
building?
Exercise 15
Determine the location of compartment walls and floors and the
required fire resistance of the following unsprinklered
building?
Sam ple
Exercise 16
Determine the location of compartment walls and floors and the
required fire resistance of the following unsprinklered
building?
Exercise 17
Determine the location of compartment walls and floors and the
required fire resistance of the following unsprinklered
building?
Sam ple
Exercise 18
Determine the location of compartment walls and floors and the
required fire resistance of the following cinema that has been
fitted with sprinklers?
Exercise 19
a) Determine the compartmentation and the required fire resistance
of the following supermarket which is unsprinklered?
b) What would the requirement be if the supermarket was
sprinklered?
Sam ple
Exercise 20
Determine the fire resistance of a sprinklered office with a top
floor 32m above ground.
Floor area of each compartment is 1000m2
Compartment height is 3.1m
Sam ple
Exercise 21
Determine the fire resistance of a 2 storey shop with the following
dimensions.
The ground floor has 6 openings
Opening 1 5.4m2 - 2m high Opening 2 3.5m2 - 3m high
Opening 3 3.0m2 - 2m high Opening 4 5.4m2 - 2m high
Opening 5 3.5m2 - 3m high Opening 6 3.0m2 - 2m high
The first floor has 4 openings
Opening 1 14.0m2 - 2m high Opening 2 14.0m2 - 2m high
Opening 3 28m2 - 2.5m high Opening 4 28m2 - 2.5m high
Sam ple
Exercise 22
Determine the fire resistance of a 2 storey building. The ground
floor is a high hazard industrial building and the upper floor is
an office with the following parameters
The ground floor has 6 openings
Opening 1 5.4m2 - 2m high Opening 2 8.0m2 - 3m high
Opening 3 7.0m2 - 3m high Opening 4 5.4m2 - 2m high
Opening 5 8.0m2 - 3m high Opening 6 7.0m2 - 3m high
The first floor has 6 openings
Opening 1 9.0m2 - 2.5m high Opening 2 9.0m2 - 2.5m high
Opening 3 11m2 - 2m high Opening 4 9.0m2 - 2.5m high
Opening 5 9.0m2 - 2.5m high Opening 6 11m2 - 2m high
Sam ple
Exercise 23
Determine the fire resistance of a 5 storey sprinklered shop with
the following dimensions.
The ground floor has 6 openings
Opening 1 3.5m2 - 3m high Opening 2 16m2 - 2m high
Opening 3 15m2 - 2m high Opening 4 3.5m2 - 3m high
Opening 5 16m2 - 2m high Opening 6 15m2 - 2m high
The upper floors all have the same 4 openings
Opening 1 22.0m2 - 2m high Opening 2 22.0m2 - 2m high
Opening 3 28m2 - 2.5m high Opening 4 28m2 - 2.5m high
Sam ple
Exercise 24
Determine the fire resistance of a 2 storey sprinklered building.
The ground floor is an office and the upper floor is used as an
industrial ordinary hazard use.
The ground floor has 6 openings
Opening 1 40m2 - 2m high Opening 2 3.3m2 - 3m high
Opening 3 11m2 - 2m high Opening 4 40m2 - 2m high
Opening 5 3.3m2 - 3m high Opening 6 11m2 - 2m high
The first floor has 6 openings
Opening 1 5.6m2 - 1.1m high Opening 2 6.7m2 - 1.2m high
Opening 3 8m2 - 1m high Opening 4 5.6m2 - 1.1m high
Opening 5 6.7m2 - 1.2m high Opening 6 8m2 - 1m high
Sam ple
Page 121 of 215
This module will cover the issue of external fire spread and cover
all the methods that can be used to determine both boundary
distances and unprotected areas.
Module 1-5-1
External fire spread introduction History Methods available
Underlying principles
..
Boundary distance Notional boundary Enclosing rectangle method
Unprotected areas Elevation requirement Plane of reference
..
Sam ple
Determine exposure of hazard Unprotected percentage Interpolation
Boundary distance
Module 1-5-4
Impact of sprinklers Local concentration of hazard
Module 1-5-5
Widely spaced areas
..
This module covers the following topics:
.
Aggregate notional area (Protractor method)
Sam ple
Alternative method
Module 1-5-10
This module covers the following topics:
Introduction to radiation What is radiation Intensity of radiation
Frequency of radiation Level of radiation received at some distance
Intensity of radiation
Module 1-5-11
This module covers the following topics:
Configuration factor Radiation received at body Radiation received
on flat roof
Sam ple
Exercise 1
Determine the unprotected areas which can be ignored in the
following facades?
Exercise 2
Determine the unprotected areas which can be ignored in the
following facades?
Module 1.5 Exercises
Exercise 3
Determine the unprotected areas which can be ignored in the
following facades?
Exercise 4
Determine the unprotected area for the elevation shown when the
cladding on the upper 5m is combustible and more than 1mm
thick?
Sam ple
Exercise 5
Determine the unprotected area for the elevation shown when the
cladding is combustible and more than 1mm thick?
Exercise 6
Determine the unprotected area for the elevation shown when the
cladding is combustible and more than 1mm thick?
Sam ple
Exercise 8
Sam ple
Exercise 10
Sam ple
Exercise 12
Sam ple
Exercise 14
Sam ple
Exercise 16
Determine the boundary distance for an office building with the
following dimensions
Sam ple
Exercise 17
Determine the boundary distance for an industrial building with the
following dimensions
Exercise 18
Determine the boundary distance for an office building with the
following dimensions
Sam ple
Exercise 19
Determine the boundary distance for an industrial building with the
following dimensions
Exercise 20
Determine the boundary distance for an office building with the
following dimensions
Sam ple
Exercise 21
Determine the boundary distance for an industrial building with the
following
Exercise 22
Determine the boundary distance from the following office using the
enclosing rectangle method
Sam ple
Determine the boundary distance from the following residential
building using the enclosing rectangle method
Exercise 24
Determine the boundary distance from the following industrial
building using the enclosing rectangle method
Sam ple
Exercise 25
Determine the boundary distance from the following office using the
enclosing rectangle method
1. Actual enclosing rectangle m x m
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 m x m = m2
3. Unprotected area = m2
5. Boundary distance = m
Exercise 26
Determine the boundary distance from the following office using the
enclosing rectangle method
1. Actual enclosing rectangle m x m
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 m x m = m2
3. Unprotected area = m2
5. Boundary distance = m
Determine the boundary distance from the following industrial using
the enclosing rectangle method?
1. Actual enclosing rectangle m x m
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 m x m = m2
3. Unprotected area = m2
5. Boundary distance = m
Exercise 28
Determine the boundary distance from the following industrial
building using the enclosing rectangle method
1. Actual enclosing rectangle m x m
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 m x m = m2
3. Unprotected area = m2
5. Boundary distance = m
Exercise 29
Determine the boundary distance from the following industrial
building using the enclosing rectangle method?
1. Actual enclosing rectangle m x m
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 m x m = m2
3. Unprotected area = m2
5. Boundary distance = m
Page 141 of 215
Special areas of concern.
Often the boundary distances may be determined quite simply by the
use of Stages 1-4.
In practice, however, instances will occur where the elevation is
not uniform or the plan shape is more complex..
1. Local concentrations of exposure hazard
2. Elevations with setbacks over 1.5m
3. Widely spaced groups of unprotected areas
4. Recesses with unprotected areas on three sides
5. Recesses with unprotected areas only in the rear wall
Sam ple
Determine the boundary distance for an industrial building fitted
with sprinklers with the following unprotected openings?
First limiting position
1. Actual enclosing rectangle x
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
3. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
4. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
5. Boundary distance = m.
6. What would boundary distance be for an office with sprinklers
installed = m
Final limiting position
7. Actual enclosing rectangle around local concentration x
8. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
9. Unprotected area in local concentration = m2
10. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
11. Boundary distance = m.
12. What would boundary distance be for an office with sprinklers
installed = m
Sam ple
Exercise 31
Determine the boundary distance for an office with the following
unprotected openings?
First limiting position
1. Actual enclosing rectangle x
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
3. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
4. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
5. Boundary distance = m.
6. What would boundary distance be for an office with sprinklers
installed = m
Final limiting position
7. Actual enclosing rectangle around local concentration x
8. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
9. Unprotected area in local concentration = m2
10. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
11. Boundary distance = m.
12. What would boundary distance be for an office with sprinklers
installed = m
Sam ple
Exercise 32
.
1. Actual enclosing rectangle x
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
3. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
4. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
5. Boundary distance = m.
6. What would boundary distance be for an office with sprinklers
installed = m
Final limiting position
7. Actual enclosing rectangle around local concentration x
8. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
9. Unprotected area in local concentration = m2
10. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
11. Boundary distance = m.
12. What would boundary distance be for an office with sprinklers
installed = m
Sam ple
Exercise 33
Determine the boundary distance for an office with the following
unprotected openings?
First limiting position
1. Actual enclosing rectangle x
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
3. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
4. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
5. Boundary distance = m.
6. What would boundary distance be for an office with sprinklers
installed = m
Final limiting position
7. Actual enclosing rectangle around local concentration x
8. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
9. Unprotected area in local concentration = m2
10. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
11. Boundary distance = m.
12. What would boundary distance be for an office with sprinklers
installed = m
Sam ple
Exercise 34
Determine the boundary distance for an industrial building with the
following unprotected openings?
First limiting position
1. Actual enclosing rectangle x
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
3. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
4. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
5. Boundary distance = m.
6. What would boundary distance be for an office with sprinklers
installed = m
Final limiting position
7. Actual enclosing rectangle around local concentration x
8. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
9. Unprotected area in local concentration = m2
10. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
11. Boundary distance = m.
12. What would boundary distance be for an office with sprinklers
installed = m
Sam ple
Exercise 35 – Widely spaced groups of unprotected areas
Determine the boundary distance of the following residential
building based on the enclosing rectangle method.
First limiting position
First determine the first limiting position treating the whole
elevation as being involved.
1. Actual enclosing rectangle x
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
3. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
4. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
5. Boundary distance for office = m.
If the spacing of the unprotected areas is MORE than four times the
boundary distance, then each group can be considered as a separate
radiator
6. Four times the boundary distance = m.
7. Spacing between radiators = m.
8. Can they considered to be separate YES/NO
Sam ple
9. Actual enclosing rectangle around radiator x
10. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
11. Unprotected area = m2
13. Boundary distance for office = m.
Final limiting position B
14. Actual enclosing rectangle around radiator x
15. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
16. Unprotected area = m2
18. Boundary distance for office = m.
Sam ple
Exercise 36 – Widely spaced groups of unprotected areas
Determine the boundary distance of the following office based on
the enclosing rectangle method.
First limiting position
First determine the first limiting position treating the whole
elevation as being involved.
1. Actual enclosing rectangle x
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
3. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
4. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
5. Boundary distance for office = m.
If the spacing of the unprotected areas is MORE than four times the
boundary distance, then each group can be considered as a separate
radiator
6. Four times the boundary distance = m.
7. Spacing between radiators = m.
8. Can they considered to be separate YES/NO
Sam ple
9. Actual enclosing rectangle around radiator x .
10. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
11. Unprotected area = m2
13. Boundary distance for office = m.
Final limiting position B
14. Actual enclosing rectangle around radiator x
15. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
16. Unprotected area = m2
18. Boundary distance for office = m.
Sam ple
Exercise 37 – Widely spaced groups of unprotected areas
Determine the boundary distance of the following office based on
the enclosing rectangle method.
First limiting position
First determine the first limiting position treating the whole
elevation as being involved.
1. Actual enclosing rectangle x
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
3. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
4. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
5. Boundary distance for office = m.
If the spacing of the unprotected areas is MORE than four times the
boundary distance, then each group can be considered as a separate
radiator
6. Four times the boundary distance = m.
7. Spacing between radiators = m.
8. Can they considered to be separate YES/NO
Sam ple
9. Actual enclosing rectangle around radiator x
10. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
11. Unprotected area = m2
13. Boundary distance for office = m.
Final limiting position B
14. Actual enclosing rectangle around radiator x
15. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
16. Unprotected area = m2
18. Boundary distance for office = m.
Sam ple
Exercise 38 – Widely spaced groups of unprotected areas
Determine the boundary distance of the following industrial
building based on the enclosing rectangle method.
First limiting position
First determine the first limiting position treating the whole
elevation as being involved.
1. Actual enclosing rectangle x
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
3. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
4. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
5. Boundary distance for office = m.
If the spacing of the unprotected areas is MORE than four times the
boundary distance, then each group can be considered as a separate
radiator
6. Four times the boundary distance = m.
7. Spacing between radiators = m.
8. Can they considered to be separate YES/ NO
Sam ple
9. Actual enclosing rectangle around radiator x
10. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
11. Unprotected area = m2
13. Boundary distance for office = m.
Final limiting position B
14. Actual enclosing rectangle around radiator x
15. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
16. Unprotected area = m2
18. Boundary distance for office = m.
Sam ple
Exercise 39 – Widely spaced groups of unprotected areas
Determine the boundary distance of the following office based on
the enclosing rectangle method.
First limiting position
First determine the first limiting position treating the whole
elevation as being involved.
1. Actual enclosing rectangle x
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
3. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
4. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
5. Boundary distance for office = m.
If the spacing of the unprotected areas is MORE than four times the
boundary distance, then each group can be considered as a separate
radiator
6. Four times the boundary distance = m.
7. Spacing between radiators = m.
8. Can they considered to be separate YES /NO
Sam ple
9. Actual enclosing rectangle around radiator x
10. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
11. Unprotected area = m2
13. Boundary distance for office = m.
Final limiting position B
14. Actual enclosing rectangle around radiator x
15. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
16. Unprotected area = m2
18. Boundary distance for office = m.
Sam ple
Page 157 of 215
Exercise 40 – Elevations with set-backs more than 1.5m behind the
plane of reference
Determine the boundary distance of the following residential
building based on the enclosing rectangle method
The enclosing rectangle is 12m x 27.6m with 140m2 unprotected
openings
Equivalent radiator
The equivalent radiator when brought forward is an enclosing
rectangle of 12m x 27m with 132m2 unprotected openings
Sam ple
1. Actual enclosing rectangle m x m
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
3. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
4. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
5. Boundary distance = m.
6. Actual enclosing rectangle m x m
7. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
8. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
9. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
10. Boundary distance = m.
Page 159 of 215
Exercise 41 – Elevations with set-backs more than 1.5m behind the
plane of reference
Determine the boundary distance of the following industrial
building based on the enclosing rectangle method. The enclosing
rectangle is 5.8m x 19.7m with 65m2 unprotected openings
Equivalent radiator
The equivalent radiator when brought forward is an enclosing
rectangle of 5.8m x 18m with 132m2 unprotected openings
Sam ple
1. Actual enclosing rectangle x
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
2. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
3. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
4. Boundary distance = m.
5. Actual enclosing rectangle x
6. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
7. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
8. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
9. Boundary distance = m.
Page 161 of 215
Exercise 42 – Elevations with set-backs more than 1.5m behind the
plane of reference
Determine the boundary distance of the following industrial
building based on the enclosing rectangle method. The enclosing
rectangle is 12m x 28m with 145m2 unprotected openings
Equivalent radiator
The equivalent radiator when brought forward is an enclosing
rectangle of 12m x 26.5m with 131m2 unprotected openings
Sam ple
1. Actual enclosing rectangle m x m
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
3. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
4. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
5. Boundary distance = m.
6. Actual enclosing rectangle x
7. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
8. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
9. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
10. Boundary distance = m.
Page 163 of 215
Exercise 43 – Elevations with set-backs more than 1.5m behind the
plane of reference
Determine the boundary distance of the following office building
based on the enclosing rectangle method. The enclosing rectangle is
14m x 25m with 110m2 unprotected openings
Equivalent radiator
The equivalent radiator when brought forward is an enclosing
rectangle of 14m x 23.4m with 102m2 unprotected openings
Sam ple
1. Actual enclosing rectangle x
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
3. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
4. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
5. Boundary distance = m.
6. Actual enclosing rectangle m x m
7. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
8. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
9. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
10. Boundary distance = m.
Page 165 of 215
Exercise 44 – Elevations with set-backs more than 1.5m behind the
plane of reference
Determine the boundary distance of the following industrial
building based on the enclosing rectangle method. The enclosing
rectangle is 7.9m x 17m with 76m2 unprotected openings
Equivalent radiator
The equivalent radiator when brought forward is an enclosing
rectangle of 7.9m x 16.4m with 69m2 unprotected openings
Sam ple
1. Actual enclosing rectangle x
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
3. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
4. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
5. Boundary distance = m.
6. Actual enclosing rectangle m x m
7. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
8. Unprotected area in whole elevation = m2
9. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
10. Boundary distance = m.
Exercise 45– Recesses with unprotected areas on three sides
Determine the boundary distance of the following building based on
the enclosing rectangle method.
In this situation you need to add all the unprotected areas and
treat as one elevation.
1. Actual enclosing rectangle m x m
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 m x m = m2
3. Unprotected area in front elevation A and C = m2
4. Unprotected area in middle and side elevation B = m2
5. Total unprotected area = m2
6. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
7. Boundary distance = m.
Exercise 46 – Recesses with unprotected areas on three sides
Determine the boundary distance of the following building based on
the enclosing rectangle method.
In this situation you need to add all the unprotected areas and
treat as one elevation.
1. Actual enclosing rectangle m x m
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 m x m = m2
3. Unprotected area in front elevation A and C = m2
4. Unprotected area in middle and side elevation B = m2
5. Total unprotected area = m2
6. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
7. Boundary distance = m.
Exercise 47 – Recesses with unprotected areas on three sides
Determine the boundary distance of the following building based on
the enclosing rectangle method.
In this situation you need to add all the unprotected areas and
treat as one elevation.
1. Actual enclosing rectangle m x m
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 m x m = m2
3. Unprotected area in front elevation A and C = m2
4. Unprotected area in middle and side elevation B = m2
5. Total unprotected area = m2
6. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
7. Boundary distance = m.
Exercise 48 – Recesses with unprotected area in the rear wall
Determine the boundary distance of the following building based on
the enclosing rectangle method.
In this situation you need to firstly determine the first limiting
position
First limiting position
1. Actual enclosing rectangle m x m
2. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
3. Unprotected area in whole elevation A + B + C = m2
4. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
5. Boundary distance = m.
Then you can take into account the reduction factor for the
recessed area
Reduction factor
Sam ple
Page 171 of 215
Now you apply this reduction factor to the area in the recess
1. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
2. Unprotected area in recess B = m2
3. Reduction factor x area = = m2
4. Reduced area of unprotected areas in A + B + C = m2
5. Adjusted percentage of unprotected areas = %
6. Final limit position = m.
Sam ple
Exercise 49 – Recesses with unprotected area in the rear wall
Determine the boundary distance of the following building based on
the enclosing rectangle method.
In this situation you need to firstly determine the first limiting
position
First limiting position
6. Actual enclosing rectangle m x m
7. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
8. Unprotected area in whole elevation A + B + C = m2
9. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
10. Boundary distance = m.
Then you can take into account the reduction factor for the
recessed area
Reduction factor
recess
Page 173 of 215
Now you apply this reduction factor to the area in the recess
7. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
8. Unprotected area in recess B = m2
9. Reduction factor x area = = m2
10. Reduced area of unprotected areas in A + B + C = m2
11. Adjusted percentage of unprotected areas = %
12. Final limit position = m.
Sam ple
Exercise 50 – Recesses with unprotected area in the rear wall
Determine the boundary distance of the following building based on
the enclosing rectangle method.
In this situation you need to firstly determine the first limiting
position
First limiting position
11. Actual enclosing rectangle m x m
12. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
13. Unprotected area in whole elevation A + B + C = m2
14. Unprotected area as a percentage of enclosing rectangle =
%.
15. Boundary distance = m.
Then you can take into account the reduction factor for the
recessed area
Reduction factor
recess
Page 175 of 215
Now you apply this reduction factor to the area in the recess
13. Enclosing rectangle size to use for table 1 x = m2
14. Unprotected area in recess B = m2
15. Reduction factor x area = = m2
16. Reduced area of unprotected areas in A + B + C = m2
17. Adjusted percentage of unprotected areas = %
18. Final limit position = m.
Sam ple
Exercise 51
Determine the aggregate notional area for the following points
which otherwise complied with the enclosing rectangle method.
Sam ple
Exercise 52
Determine the boundary distance for the following single storey
office using the protractor method
Maximum notional area allowed = 210m2
Sam ple
Exercise 53
Determine the boundary distance for the following single storey
industrial building using the protractor method. There are 6 points
to check compliance as they fall within the boundary distance
Maximum notional area allowed = 90m2
Sam ple
Alternative Formula
Exercise 54
Find the maximum permitted unprotected area for an uncompartmented
shop building 24 m high and 18 m wide, 5 m from the relevant
boundary
or
Find the maximum permitted unprotected area for an uncompartmented
Industrial building 6m high and 22m wide, 6m from the relevant
boundary.
or
Exercise 56
Find the maximum permitted distance from the relevant boundary for
an uncompartmented Office building 12m high and 17m wide, of which
97.92m2 is unprotected.
or
Exercise 57
Find the maximum permitted distance from the relevant boundary for
a compartmented Office building 7m high and 12m wide, of which 33%
is unprotected.
or
Exercise 58
a) A residential building is located within 11.4m from an
industrial building with an unprotected area of 12m high x width
11m. You have been asked to determine the radiant heat being
received at the residential building?
b) What would the radiation intensity be if the distance was
doubled to 22.8m?
As the building is an industrial building you can assume flame
temperatures of 1040C (1313K) and emissivity of the source will be
assumed to be 0.97
Sam ple
Page 205 of 215
This module will cover B5 Access and facilities for the Fire
Service. It will look at issues with regards to providing access
for fire service vehicles. It will look at when and how many
firefighting shafts are required in buildings and wet and dry
risers.
Module 1-6-1
At the end of this module you will have a good understanding of
:
.
.
..
Sam ple
Module 1-6-2
At the end of this module you will have a good understanding of
:
.
.
Module 1-6-3
At the end of this module you will have a good understanding of
:
Meeting the requirements to BS9999 Firefighting shafts Layout
requirements Firefighting stairs and lifts Firefighting
lobbies
.
.
Module 1-6-4
At the end of this module you will have a good understanding of
:
Vehicular access to buildings Wet and dry risers Fire control
centres Ventilation requirements Smoke shafts Summary
Sam ple
Exercise 1
What is the access requirement for the following building for both
pump and high reach appliances?
Exercise 2
What is the access requirement for the following building for both
pump and high reach appliances?
Sam ple
Exercise 3
What is the access requirement for the following building for both
pump and high reach appliances?
Exercise 4
What is the access requirement for the following building for both
pump and high reach appliances?
Sam ple
Exercise 5
Determine the minimum number of firefighting shafts and the
facilities required for the following building?
Exercise 6
Determine the minimum number of firefighting shafts and the
facilities required for the following building?
Sam ple
Exercise 7
Determine the minimum number of firefighting shafts and the
facilities required for the following building?
Exercise 8
Determine the minimum number of firefighting shafts and the
facilities required for the following building?
Sam ple
Exercise 9
Determine the minimum number of firefighting shafts and the
facilities required for the following building?
Exercise 10
Determine the minimum number of firefighting shafts and the
facilities required for the following buildings?
Sam ple
Exercise 11
Determine the minimum number of firefighting shafts and the
facilities required for the following buildings?
Exercise 12
Determine the minimum number of firefighting shafts and the
facilities required for the following buildings?
Sam ple
Exercise 13
What is the access requirement for the following building for both
pump and high reach appliances?
Exercise 14
What is the access requirement for the following building for both
pump and high reach appliances?
Sam ple
Exercise 15
What is the access requirement for the following building for both
pump and high reach appliances?
Exercise 16
What is the access requirement for the following building for both
pump and high reach appliances?
Sam ple