Photosynthesis vs. Respiration

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Photosynthesis vs. Respiration. Free Energy – . Enthalpy (heat of reaction) is the amount of energy released or absorbed during a chemical reaction Symbol is Δ H Think of it as energy needed Entropy is a measure of randomness, tendency toward disorder Symbol is Δ S - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Photosynthesis vs. Respiration

Photosynthesis vs. Respiration

Photosynthesis vs. Respiration1Things in CommonBoth photosynthesis and respiration make ATP.Both involve, CO2, oxygen, sugar (C6H12O6), and water (H2O)Almost all cells go through respiration3

phosphate removedATP transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell functions.Energy is released when a phosphate group is removed.ADP is changed into ATP when a phosphate group is added.4Organisms break down carbon-based molecules to produce ATP.Carbohydrates are the molecules most commonly broken down to make ATP.not stored in large amountsup to 36 ATP from one glucose molecule

triphosphateadenosineadenosinediphosphatetri=3di=25Fats store the most energy.80 percent of the energy in your bodyabout 146 ATP from a triglycerideProteins are least likely to be broken down to make ATP.amino acids not usually needed for energyabout the same amount of energy as a carbohydrate

6The light-dependent reactions capture energy from sunlight.take place in thylakoidswater and sunlight are neededchlorophyll absorbs energyenergy is transferred along thylakoid membrane then to light-independent reactionsoxygen is released

7The light-independent reactions make sugars.take place in stroma (fluid outside the thylakoids)needs carbon dioxide from atmosphereuse energy to build a sugar in a cycle of chemical reactions

8Photosystem II captures and transfers energy.chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlightenergized electrons enter electron transport chainwater molecules are splitoxygen is released as wastehydrogen ions are transported across thylakoid membrane

9Photosystem I captures energy and produces energy-carrying molecules.chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlightenergized electrons are used to make NADPHNADPH is transferred to light-independent reactions

10Summary of Light Dependent ReactionsEnergy is captured from the sun.Energy goes into electrons into the electron transport chain.Water is broken downH+ ions are transported and form NADPHFlow of H+ ions through ATP synthase makes ATPElectron Transport11Summary of Light Independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle)CO2 enters cycleATP and NADPH from light-dependent transfer energy1 3-carbon molecule made for every 3 CO22 3-carbon molecules bonded to make sugarProducts 6-carbon sugar, NADP+, and ADP12A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight.carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycle (this is what has sugar as an end productenergy is added and carbon molecules are rearrangeda high-energy three-carbon molecule leaves the cycle

13two three-carbon molecules bond to form a sugar remaining molecules stay in the cycle

A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight.14Cellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars.Cellular respiration is aerobic, or requires oxygen.Aerobic stages take place in mitochondria.

mitochondrionanimal cell15Glycolysis must take place first.anaerobic process (does not require oxygen)takes place in cytoplasmsplits glucose into two three-carbon moleculesproduces two ATP molecules

16Cellular respiration is like a mirror image of photosynthesis.The Krebs cycle transfers energy to an electron transport chain.takes place inmitochondrial matrixbreaks down three-carbonmolecules from glycolysismakes a small amount of ATPreleases carbon dioxidetransfers energy-carrying molecules

6H O26CO 26O 2mitochondrionmatrix (area enclosedby inner membrane)

inner membraneATPATPenergyenergy from glycolysis1243andandandKrebs Cycle17

6H O26CO 26O 2mitochondrionmatrix (area enclosedby inner membrane)

inner membraneATPATPenergyenergy from glycolysis1243andandandThe electron transport chain produces a large amount of ATP.takes place in inner membraneenergy transferred to electron transport chainoxygen enters processATP producedwater released as awaste productElectron Transport18The Krebs cycle is the first main part of cellular respiration.Pyruvate is broken down before the Krebs cycle.carbon dioxide releasedNADH producedcoenzyme A (CoA) bonds to two-carbon molecule

19The Krebs cycle produces energy-carrying molecules.

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The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration.The electron transport chain uses NADH and FADH2 to make ATP.high-energy electrons enter electron transport chainenergy is used to transport hydrogen ions across the inner membranehydrogen ionsflow through achannel in themembrane21The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration.The breakdown of one glucose molecule produces up to36 molecules of ATP. (2 from glycolysis, 2 from Kreb, 32 from ETC)ATP synthase produces ATPoxygen picks up electrons and hydrogen ionswater is released as a waste product

The electron transport chain uses NADH and FADH2 to make ATP.22ATP Products of Cellular Respiration including glycolysisGlycolysis uses 2 ATP and make 4 ATP. Net gain of 2 ATPKreb Cycle 2 ATP, 8 NADH, 2 FADH2Electron Transport Chain 32ATPNet gain 36 ATP for every glucose molecule.23Comparison of Photosynthesis & Cellular RespirationPhotosynthesisCellular RespirationOrganelle for processChloroplastMitochondrionReactantsCO2 and H2OSugars (C6H12O6) and O2Cycle of chemical reactionsCalvin cycle in stroma of chloroplasts builds sugar moleculesKrebs cycle in matrix of mitochondria breaks down carbon-based moleculesElectron Transport ChainProteins within thylakoid membraneProteins within inner mitochondrial membraneProductsSugars (C6H12O6) and O2CO2 and H2O

24Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue when oxygen is unavailable.Fermentation is an anaerobic process.occurs when oxygen is not available for cellular respirationdoes not produce ATP

25Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable.Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells.glycolysis splits glucose into two pyruvate moleculespyruvate and NADH enter fermentationenergy from NADH converts pyruvate into lactic acidNADH is changed back into NAD+NAD+ is recycled to glycolysis

26Fermentation is used in food production.yogurtcheesebread

27ProjectIn teams of 2, students will create a visual representation (e.g., poster or PowerPoint) to explain the interdependent relationships of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, and how the processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis affect a runner in a marathon race. Students should use few words and focus on using graphics to represent the cyclic processes. Visual representations will be peer and teacher reviewed.28