A Country within a Country The Kashmir Conflict
Submitted By: Bharat Sharotri Dinesh Sharma Digvijay Garg
OVERVIEW Background and History
Violence From 1988 to 2010
Present Ongoing Aggression
Before 1947. 1939 Muslim conference changes its name to
National Conference. 1944 Jinnah visits Kashmir and urges the people to join him under one flag. September,1947 Kashmir Socialist Party and Kisan Mazdoor Conference agreed that the state should cede to Pakistan.
Pakistan invaded kashmirOctober 22, 1947 Commanded by General Akbar Khan, who later became the Chief of Pakistans army. Entire villages e.g. Baramula, Rajouri and Poonch were
destroyed by the Pakistani army while committing murder, rape and plunder.
Ruler of Kashmir appealed to India for help Why ?
Because Kashmirs small state army was no for the Pakistani army.
Maharaja Hari Singh sent Sheikh Abdullah as his
representative to Delhi to seek Indias help, and in turn signed the Statement of Accession.
Sheikh abdullah Like many other secular minded Muslims who did not
believe in the two nation theory, insisted on joining a secular India so that Kashmir would remain secular and multi ethnic. Sheikh Abdullah became the undisputed head of the interim government of Jammu and Kashmir, with the title of Prime Minister, in March 1948
Politics of plebiscite The tribal invasion and the subsequent fighting that continued until January 1948, finally forced India to refer the issue to the United Nations. The title of the complaint was changed from The Jammu and Kashmir Question to The Indo-Pak Question.
Acceptance of Plebiscite-The UN Resolution Finally the two countries formally signed their
acceptance of a plebiscite in the January 5, 1949 resolution in which the first operative paragraph stated that, the question of the accession of the State of Jammu
and Kashmir to India or Pakistan will be decided through democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite.
Initial Years in Indian Union 1951- First ever elections held in J&K, the NC won all
the seats unopposed. 1952- Article 370 was adopted. 1953 Sheikh Abdullah was arrested on charges of corruption. 1954 He was replaced by his friend and deputy Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad and under his reigns Kashmir made a lot of progress by way of new schools ,universties,hospitals and roads. He retired in 1964.
Pakistan Attacked India in 1965 34,000 Pakistani soldiers infiltrated Kashmir and
launched massive land and air attacks against India, under the command of General Ayub Khan. Pakistan was defeated by India in this second invasion
and signed the Tashkent agreement with India.
Pakistan Attacked India in 1971 Pakistan launched a third invasion of India which led
to Pakistans division and the birth of Bangladesh. In all three wars, Kashmiris rose to the defence of
India. They joined the Indian army to defeat the Pakistanis. July 1972: Pakistan signed the Simla Agreement with
India in Simla, India.
Sheikh Abdullahs Final Years In 1977 the state Congress party withdrew its support
of the Abdullah Govt. thus ending the alliance. In retaliation, Abdullah began speaking of plebiscite and independence. In 1980, the Islamization of Kashmir has began with full force. The Abdullah Govt. changed the name of 2500 villages from their original names to new Islamic names. Eg. Anantnag was to be known as Islamabad. Sheikh Abdullah died in 1982 which led to the rise of secessionist leadership in Kashmir.
In the 80s. The Saudi Influence : Held Islamic Conference in
Kashmir in 1979 and set up Jhelum Valley medical college through which they were able to transfer large sums of foreign exchange. By 1983, the Government of India received reports of Kashmiri youth returning home after receiving training somewhere on the border. In early 1986, the first clear outbreaks of violence was seen as dozens of Pandits were killed. The election of 1987 was acknowledged as rigged and the government became unstable.
Fact Sheet of atrocities on kashmiri Pandits Educational Institutions burnt, damaged forcefully
occupied : 105 Religious & Cultural Institutions Destroyed/burnt, damaged : 103 Shops, Factories looted/burnt/occupied : 14,430 Houses Burnt : more than 20,000 Houses looted : 95% Kashmiri pandits killed by millitants since 1989 : 219, out of which 109 were killed in 1990 only. 24202 families out of the total 38119 migrated out of valley
Pictures depicting atrocities on kashmiri pandits .
ARTICLE 370 Made Jammu & Kashmir a Country within a
Country Created separate set of laws for States residents Made Indian Laws of Fundamental Rights, Citizenship, Property Ownership irrelevant in the State Prevents Economic and Political integration of state with rest of India
Public safety Act For the last 32 years an innocuously named law, the
public safety act, has been in force in J&K. Its vaguely worded but deadly peace of legislation that leads the police hold people for over 2 years without a trial or even without any charge, simply on the suspicion that they might do some thing dangerous.
Armed forces special power Act For the last 20 years ,AFSPA, which was created to
tame the Naga insurgency in the 1950s operate in J&K. This allows the military to fire on people in disturbed area. Troops can enter any where and arrest people without warrant .
MAJOR HAPPENINGS 1989 : Rubaiya Sayeed kidnapped (daughter of Mufti
Mohammad Sayeed) : 5 prisoners released. Yasin Maliks hand suspected 1990 : Mirwaiz Maulvi Farooq, Imam of Juma Masjidassassinated. 1991 : 2 Swedish engineers in Uri Hydel Project abducted 1992 : Six Israelis are taken hostage 1993 : Militants storm Hazrat Bal Mosque : a month long siege 1994 : Two foreigners abducted - (HuA) to obtain release of three militants.
MAJOR HAPPENINGS 1995 : Four foreign nationals are abducted from
Pahalgam by the Al Faran. 2000 : J&K Minister of State for Power, Ghulam Hassan Bhat, is killed along with four other persons in a landmine explosion - HM terrorists 2000 2004 : Numerous instances of attack on BSF camps Human bombs, IED, grenades, carbombs used.
Lahore summit The Declaration was a bilateral agreement India and Pakistan signed
on February 21, 1999 by the then-Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpaee and the then-Prime Minister of pakistan Nawaz sharif Sharing a vision of peace and stability Committed to the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations, and the universally accepted principles of peaceful coexistence; Reiterating the determination of both countries to implementing the Simla Agreement in letter and spirit; Committed to the objective of universal nuclear disarmament and non-proliferartion;
KARGIL WAR Also known as KARGIL CONFLICT was an armed
conflict between INDIA and PAKISTAN that took place between MAY and JULY,1999 in the KARGIL district of KASHMIR The cause of the war was infiltration of pakistani soldiers and kashmiri militants into position of indian side of the LOC
Agra summit A historic summit meeting was held between
Pakistan's President Pervez Musharraf and the Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee in Agra, from July 14 to 16, 2001. The summit started amid high hopes of resolving various disputes between the two countries including the five decades old Kashmir issue.
FACT FILE ABOUT KASHMIRDEATHSYEAR 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 DEATHS 4507 3022 2542 1860 1732 1116 777 541 377
FACT FILE ABOUT KASHMIR Population of 11 million Total number of people employed is just 1.15 million 6.9 billion dollar economy
42% in services 1.7% in construction 0.7% in agriculture 10% in power Rest in unorganized sector
ENCOUNTER IN KUPWARA Muhammad Shafi, Shehzad Ahmed, Riyad Ahmed
shot dead on April 29 1 Army COL and 2 Army Majors along with 8 others charge sheeted Charged under section 302(murder) , 364(abduction),120-B(criminal conspiracy) and 34(common intent)