Sentence Composing. Prepositional Phrases Appositive Phrases Participial Phrases Absolute Phrases. Prepositional Phrases. All children grow up. All children, except one , grow up. J. M. Barrie, Peter Pan. Lincoln International Airport was functioning. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
• All children grow up.• All children, except one, grow up.
• J. M. Barrie, Peter Pan
• Lincoln International Airport was functioning.• At half-past six on a Friday evening in
January, Lincoln International Airport was functioning, with difficulty.
Arthur Hailey, Airport
• They have no memory.• They have no memory, of tears or laughter,
of sorrow or loving kindness.• Lloyd Alexander, The Book of Three
• He groped out and began to sob.• He groped out for me with both of his own
arms, like a drowning man, and began to sob against my stomach.
• Stephen King, “The Mouse on the Mile”
Single Prepositional Phrases
• In that place, the wind prevailed.Glendon Swarthout, Bless the Beasts and Children
• At the bottom, he looked glumly down the tunnel.
• Stephen King, “Night Journey”
• With a quick, guilty hand, she covered the tear, her shoulders bunching to hide her face.
Zenna Henderson, The Believing Child
Consecutive Prepositional Phrases
• In a hole in the ground, there lived a rabbit.• J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit
• Across the street from their house, in an empty lot between two houses, stood the rock pile.
» James Baldwin’s “Going to Meet the Man”
• In the shade of the house, in the sunshine on the river by the boats, in the shade of the sallow wood and the fig tree, Siddhartha, the handsome Brahmin’s son, grew up.
» Herman Hesse, Siddhartha
Sentence OpenersPrepositional Phrases
• Like a lean, gray wolf, he moved silently and easily.
» Lloyd Alexander, The Book of Three
• Through the fence, between the curling flower spaces, I could see them hitting.
William Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury
Subject-verb SplitsPrepositional Phrases
• Ancestors, in every variety of dress, from the Elizabethan knight to the buck of the Regency, stared down and daunted us.
– Arthur Conan Doyle, The Hound of the Baskervilles
• Bearded men, in sad-colored garments and gray, steeple-crowned hats, intermixed with women.
• Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter
Sentence ClosersPrepositional Phrases
• The sea is high again today, with a thrilling flush of wind.
– Lawrence Durrell, Justine
• Then they came, up the street and around the house.
» Hal Borland, When the Legends Die
• It went away slowly.• It went away slowly, the feeling of
disappointment that came sharply after the thrill that made his shoulders ache.
– Ernest Hemingway, “Big Two-Hearted River: Part I”
• The land that lay stretched out before him became of vast significance.
• The land that lay stretched out before him became of vast significance, a place peopled by his fancy with a new race of men sprung from himself.
– Sherwood Anderson, Winesburg, Ohio
• However, I looked with a mixture of admiration and awe at Peter.
• However, I looked with a mixture of admiration and awe at Peter, a boy who could and did imitate a police siren every morning on his way to the showers.
» Robert Russell, To Catch an Angel
• That night in the south upstairs chamber, Emmett lay in a kind of trance.
• That night in the south upstairs chamber, a hot little room where a full-leafed chinaberry tree shut all the air from the single window, Emmett lay in a kind of trance.
» Jessamyn West, “ A Time of Learning”
Appositives: Sentence Openers
• One of eleven brother and sisters, Harriet was a moody, willful child.
» Langston Hughes, “Road to Freedom”
• A balding, smooth-faced man, he could have been anywhere between forty and sixty.
– Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird
• A short, round boy of seven, he took little interest in troublesome things, preferring to remain on good terms with everyone.
• Mildred D. Taylor, Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry
Appositives: Subject-Verb Splits
• Poppa, a good quiet man, spent the last hours before out parting moving aimlessly about the yard, keeping to himself and avoiding me.
• Gordon Parks, “My Mother’s Dream for Me”
• A man, a weary old pensioner with a bald dirty head and a stained brown corduroy waistcoat, appeared at the door of a small gate lodge.
• Brian Moore, The Lonely Passion of Judith Hearne
• Van’ka Zhukov, a boy of nine who had been apprenticed to the shoemaker Alyakhin three months ago, was staying up that Christmas eve.
– Anton Chekhov, “Van’ka”
Appositives: Sentence Closers
• The boy looked at them, big black ugly insects.• Doris Lessing, African Stories
• Hour after hour he stood there, silent, motionless, a shadow carved in ebony and moonlight.
• James V. Marshall, Walkabout
• He had the appearance of a man who had done a great thing, something greater than any ordinary man would do.
• John Henrik Clarke, “The Boy Who Painted Christ Black”
• We could see the lake and the mountains across the lake on the French side.
• Sitting up in bed eating breakfast, we could see the lake and the mountains across the lake on the French side.
– Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms
• Sadao had his reward.• Sadao, searching the spot of black in the
twilight sea that night, had his reward.» Pearl S. Buck, “The Enemy”
• The sun rose clear and bright.• The sun rose clear and bright, tinging the
foamy crests of the waves with a reddish purple.
Alexander Dumas, Count of Monte Cristo
• Spencer took half an hour.• Spencer took half an hour, swimming in one
of the pools which was filled with the seasonal rain, waiting for the pursuers to catch up to him.
– Ray Bradbury, The Martian Chronicles
Present Participles• She was quite far from the windows which were to her left, and behind her were a couple of tall
bookcases, CONTAINING all the books of the factory library.– John Hershey, Hiroshima
• Minute fungi overspread the whole exterior, HANGING in a fine tangled web-work from the eaves.
– Edgar Allan Poe, “The Fall of the House of Usher”
• STANDING there in the middle of the street, Marty suddenly thought of Halloween, of the winter and snowballs, of the schoolyard.
– Murray Heyert, “The New Kid”
• Professor Kazan, WEARING a spotlessly white tropical suit and a wide-brimmed hat, was the first ashore.
– Arthur C. Clarke, Dolphin Island
• He walked to the corner of the lot, than back again, STUDYING the simple terrain as if deciding how best to effect an entry, FROWNING and SCRATCHING his head.
– Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird
Past Participles• In six months a dozen small towns had been laid down upon the naked
planet, FILLED with sizzling neon tubes and yellow electric bulbs.• Ray Bradbury, The Martian Chronicles
• The tent, ILLUMINED by candle, glowed warmly in the midst of the plain.• Jack London, The Call of the Wild
• ENCHANTED and ENTHRALLED, I stopped her constantly for details.– Richard Wright, Black Boy
• The other shoji slammed open, and UNSEEN, Buntaro stamped away, FOLLOWED by the guard.
• James Clavell, Shogun
• Her hair, BRAIDED and WRAPPED around her head, made her ash-blonde crown.
• John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath
Participles: Sentence Openers
• Whistling, he let the escalator waft him into the still night air.
» Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451
• Looking over their own troops, they saw mixed masses slowly getting into regular form.
» Stephen Crane, The Red Badge of Courage
• Amazed at the simplicity of it all, I understood everything as never before.
» Alphonse Daudet, “The Last Lesson”
Participles: Subject-Verb Splits• My father, cautioning me not to work a horse till he
had fed fully, said I had plenty of time to eat myself.– Lincoln Steffens, “A boy on Horseback”
• Eckels, balanced on the narrow path, aimed his rifle playfully.
– Ray Bradbury, “ A Sound of Thunder”
• The sight of Mick’s exploring beam of light, flashing and flickering through the submarine darkness a few yards away, reminded him that he was not alone.
– Arthur C. Clarke, Dolphin Island
Participles: Sentence Closers
• The entire crowd in the saloon gathered about me now, urging me to drink.
Richard Wright, Black Boy
• She called to him, excited.Daphne du Maurier, “The Birds”
• The magician patted the hand, holding it quietly with a thumb on its blue veins, waiting for life to revive.
» T. S. White, Book of Merlyn
• She returned to her bench.• She returned to her bench, her face showing
all the unhappiness that had suddendly overtaken her.
• Theodore Dreiser, An American Tragedy
• The boy watched.• The boy watched, his eyes bulging in the
dark.» Edmund Ware, “An Underground Episode”
• About the bones, ants were ebbing away.• About the bones, ants were ebbing away, their
pincers full of meat.» Doris Lessing, African Stories
• Six boys came over the hill half an hour early that afternoon, running hard, their heads down, their forearms working, their breath whistling.
– John Steinbeck, The Red Pony
Special note about absolutes:
• Absolutes are almost complete sentences. As a test, you can make any absolute a sentence by adding was or were.
• She returned to the bench, her face showing all the unhappiness that had suddenly overtaken her.
• She returned to the bench. Her face was showing all the unhappiness that had suddenly overtaken her.
Absolutes: Sentence Openers
• His hands raw, he reached a flat place at the top.» Richard Connell, “The Most Dangerous Game”
• Each child carrying his little bag of crackling, he trod the long road home in the cold winter afternoon.
– Peter Abrahams, Tell Freedom
• Outside, his carpetbag in his hand, he stood for a long time in the barnyard.
– Jessamyn West, “A Time of Learning”
Absolutes: Subject-Verb Splits
• Miss Hearne, her face burning, hardly listened to these words.
» Brian Moore, The Lonely Passion of Judith Hearne
• High in the air, a little figure, his hands thrust in his short jacket pockets, stood staring out to sea.
» Katherine Mansfield, “The Voyage”
• An Arab on a motorcycle, his long robes flying in the wind of his speed, passed John at such a clip that the spirals of dust from his turnings on the winding road looked like little tornadoes.
» Elizabeth Yates, “Standing in Another’s Shoes”
Absolutes: Sentence Closers• She screamed for Klaus—shrieked for him—and Klaus came on the
dead run, his work boots whitened by the half-full pail of milk he had spilled on them.
Stephen King, “The Two Dead Girls”
• He walked with a prim strut, swinging out his legs in a half-circle with each step, his heels biting smartly into the red velvet carpet on the floor.
Carson McCullers, “The Jockey”
• Those who had caught sharks had taken them to the shark factory on the other side of the cove where they were hoisted on a block and tackle, their livers removed, their fins cut off and their hides skinned out, and their flesh cut into strips for salting. (four closers)