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Session Two Teaching Grammar Overview What is grammar? What are the goals of teaching grammar? Principles for teaching grammar Grammar presentation and

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  • Session Two Teaching Grammar

  • OverviewWhat is grammar? What are the goals of teaching grammar?Principles for teaching grammarGrammar presentation and practiceClassroom techniques and tasksDrawing a ConclusionAssignment: a lesson plan for grammar teaching

  • Your personal idea? Provide your own definition of the term grammar, its role in English language

    Check the concepts in our three related coursebooks.

  • What is grammar?

    e.g.Are these right? Are they acceptable?What the cat did was ate the rat. Iv just met the girl who I talked to on Friday. Grammar Prescriptive grammarDescriptive grammarGrammaring

  • A prescriptive grammar lays down the law, saying what is right and what is wrong.A descriptive grammar sets out to describe the way that people actually use language.Grammaring: grammar is a skill or dynamic process, the ability to use grammar structures accurately, meaningfully, and appropriately. (Larsen-Freeman, 2003:143)

  • Diane Larsen-Freeman (1995)Form, meaning and use David Nunan: Grammar: the study of how syntax( form), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (use) work together to enable individuals to communicate through language.

  • FORM/STRUCTUREMorphosyntactic and Lexical patternsPhonemic/Graphemicpatterns MEANING/SEMANTICSLexical meaningGrammatical meaningUSE/PRAGMATICSSocial contextLinguistic discourse context Presuppositions about context

  • FORMHow is it formed?MEANINGWhat does it mean?USEWhen and why is it used?

  • For summary of the article Teaching Grammar written by Larsen-Freeman (1991) please visit:

  • :65)

  • GRAMMAR: FORM (37CHECKPOINT 6 GrammarThe Present Perfect Tense A Statement forms Question formsI/You have just seen Have you seen yet?Short answers Yes, I/you/we/they have.No, I/you/we/they haven't.B Verbs Past tense Past participleRegular forms askasked asked Irregular forms loselost lost(B1,U6,L24, PEP & Longman 1996)

  • GRAMMAR: FORM with MEANINGGRAMMAR 1 Present perfect tense 1A Look at these sentences from A Lively City. Answer the questions.1) I've seen quite a lot of China.Do we know when the speaker saw these places? GRAMMAR 2 Present perfect tense 2B Look at these sentences from the passage in Listening and vocabulary activity 2. Decide which sentences ....a). describe events that continue over a period of time. b). describe events that happen at a particular point in time.1) And youve lived there all your life. C Grammar focus Present prefect tense used for recent events.They've put up a lot of high-rise buildings recently.Present perfect tense used for experiences.I've seen quite a lot of China.Present perfect tense used with words that cannot last.We've started a holiday club for children.Present perfect tense used with words that can last.I've worked for it for four years now.Adverbial phrases used with the present perfect far up to now till now 42004

  • Attributive Clauses with when,where, whyBook 1 Unit 5 Play this game. Get into groups of four. The first person begins with a sentence and each person in the group adds extra and different information using the attributive clause.Read these sentences from the text and in pairs, work out which word introduces a relative clause and what it refers to.

    Work in groups and write a famous event or a famous person in history. Try to use relative clauses (when, where, which, who...) in your description.Example: The Gettysburg Address which was made by Abraham Lincoln was one of the most famous speeches in American history.

  • Find how many attributive clauses there are in the text.1.The time when I first met Nelson Mandela2.The school where I studied only two years 3.a time when one had got to have a passbook to live in Johannesburg.4.The day when Mandela told me what to do and help me5.a stage where we have almost no rights at all.6.That parts of town where they lived7.get jobs they wanted.8.The places where they were sent to live.9.a position in which we had either to accept we were less important, or fight the a way which was peaceful.

  • 1 said: we were put in a position in which we had either to accept we were2reading to help you. Work out the year in which he was born and then fit in the3Island made us afraid. It was a prison from which no one escaped. There I sp4whether I would be out of work. The daywhen Nelson Mandela told me what to do 5ring the lunch breaks and the eveningswhen we should have been asleep. We re6t a job in a gold mine. This was a timewhen one had got to have a passbook 7 black worker in South Africa. The timewhen I first met Nelson Mandela was a 8ld not get jobs they wanted. The placeswhere they were sent to live were th9as very large. S4:The schoolwhere I was so unhappy was very large. 10 I began school at six. The school where I studied only two years was three11as very large. S2:The schoolwhere I learned judo was very large. 12as very large. S3:The schoolwhere I studied for six years was very until today we have reached a stagewhere we have almost no rights at all. hoose who ruled them. The parts of townwhere they lived were places decided by 15 tape and find out the reasonwhy Elias joined the ANC Youth League. 16 to the tape and find out the reasonwhy Elias why Elias joined the ANC Yout17 Nelson Mandela. Here are some reasonswhy I think he should be freed. [ThConcordances of when,where,why,prep.+ which(

  • GRAMMAR: USE=for whatUsing attributive clause to describe our new school (2004119Expressing what you likeDescribing a list of place and time/dates you went.Introducing your own city to your penfriends(from Freemans book)Highlight grammar form in task activity (video)

  • The teaching of grammarGrammar-translation methodAudiolingualismKrashen: the monitor model CLT: HymesThe new trends: Focus-on-form; Consciousness-raisingGrammaring:

  • Principles for teaching grammarIntegrate both inductive and deductive methods into your teaching;Use tasks that make clear relationship between grammatical form and function;Focus on the development of procedural rather than declarative knowledge.

  • Grammar presentation and practiceGrammar Presentation - the deductive method - the inductive method - the guided discovery methodGrammar Practice - Factors contributing to successful practice - Mechanical practice vs. Meaningful practice - Using prompts for practice

  • Which method is it?1) Presentation of an example in a real situation 2) Explanation (comparison may be done between the target language and the native language if necessary) 3) Sss practice (producing sentences) with given prompts in the context

  • Useful guidelines for teaching grammarThe presentation should not take longer than five minutes. (Ur, 1996:81)Useful guidelines for teaching grammar: Collocational, (between individual lexical items and their subcategories)Constructive, (built bit by bit, added in sequence)Contextual, (pragmatic choices, and social and culture contexts), and Contrastive (between target language and other ones; between sets of similar features and items of target language) (Pennington, 2002:92-93)

  • Grammar practice There is a need for meaningful practice and communicative use of the structure taught .According to Ur, practice may be defined as any kind of engaging with the language on the part of the learner, usually under the teacher supervision, whose primary objective is to consolidate learning . (Ur, 1988:11)

  • Mechanical Practice and Meaningful PracticeMechanical Practice involves activities that are aimed at form accuracy. Meaningful Practice focuses on the production, comprehension or exchange of meaning, though the students keep an eye on the way newly learned structures are used in the process.

  • SubstitutionSubstitute the underlined part with the proper forms of the given words:green lawn clean house pretty garden nice flowersMrs Green has the largest house in town.Mechanical Practice or Meaningful Practice ?

  • TransformationChange the following sentences into the past tense. Use the adverbs given in the brackets.Now he lives in London. (last year, Paris)We have English and maths today. (yesterday, music and P. E.)He usually gets up at seven. (this morning, eight) Mechanical Practice or Meaningful Practice?

  • Mechanical Practice or Meaningful PracticeAfter the presentation and mechanical practice of adjective comparatives and superlatives: Pair work:Look at the table below. Rank the items on the left column according to the criteria listed on the top.


    CheapHealthy Tasty Fattening Important BeerWaterFruitCigarettesAlcoholMilk

  • The students may come up with:I think beer is cheaper than fruit.No, no, I think fruit is cheaper than beer.

  • Chain of eventsTeacher: Now lets play a game. The first student starts a sentence with a second conditional clause. The next student takes the result of the sentence, reforms it into another condition and suggests a further result. For example, the first student says If I had a million dollars, I would buy a yacht. The second students says If I bought a yacht, I would go for a sail. Mechanical Practice or Meaningful Practice?

  • The students may come up with:If I went for a sail, there might be a storm.If there were a storm, my yacht would sink.If my yacht sank, I would die.If I died, my parents would cr