Structural Performance Tests of VHB™ Structural Glazing Tapes

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  • Technical Bulletin September, 2010

    3Structural Performance Tests of VHBStructural Glazing Tapes

    Introduction 3M VHB Acrylic Foam Bonding Tapes have been used worldwide in a variety ofapplications in the construction industry. To further support consideration for structuralglazing applications, performance tests were conduced at an independent accredited 3rd partytest facility (Winwall Technology Pte Ltd - Singapore) to evaluate 3M VHB StructuralGlazing Tape under stresses and environmental conditions that glass panels would typicallyexperience in a glazed curtain wall system.

    Summary The glazed panels constructed with 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tapes providedexcellent performance overall compared to a control panel glazed with a one part structuralsilicone. The first test sequence consisted of a PVB laminated glass panel bonded with 3MVHB Structural Glazing Tape 4972, a double glazed unit (DGU) bonded with 3MVHB Structural Glazing Tape G23F and a DGU bonded with a one part structural silicone.No failure was observed with either the 3M VHB Tape or the structural silicone glazedpanels in any of the tests including ASTM E330 wind load structural tests at ambient, coldand hot temperatures (-25C and 70C) up to 2.9 kPa (60 psf), corresponding to a wind speedof 250 kph (155 mph). After this, pressures were gradually increased up to 8.4 kPa (175 psf)at ambient temperature conditions. At this point the laminated glass failed and blew out of thechamber. However, glass was still attached and bonded to the 3M VHB StructuralGlazing Tape 4972 around the perimeter of the frame demonstrating the high strength of thetape. An 8.4 kPa pressure load is equivalent to a wind speed of 426 kph (264 mph).

    A second test sequence patterned after the first test sequence was run consisting of twosingle pane tempered glass panels. One was bonded with 3M VHB Structural GlazingTape G23F and the other with one part structural silicone. The DGU panels bonded with3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape G23F were also subjected to this second testsequence after surviving the first test sequence. No failure was observed with either the3M VHB Tape glazed panels or the structural silicone glazed panel in any of the testsincluding ASTM E330 wind load structural tests up to 10 kPa (210 psf), which correspondsto a sustained wind speed of 290 mph (467 kph).

    (1)

    Conclusions In the tests conducted, 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tapes G23F and 4972 fulfilled all therequirements as specified by ASTM E283, ASTM E331 and ASTM E330 test methods.

    Their performance exceeded expectations as shown in tests with more stringent conditionssuch as structural loads at -25C (-13F) and at 70C (158F) with test method ASTM E330.The conditions set for air infiltration and water leakage were higher than the minimumstandards outlined in ASTM E283 and ASTM E331. Furthermore, the destructive structuralload performance for the laminated glass frame was exceeded by > 250% (failure due toglass breakage, and > 300% for structures with tempered glass and DGU glass.

    Overall, in the tests conducted, there were no observable differences between 3M VHBStructural Glazing Tapes and structural silicone in terms of performance; all fulfilled andexceeded their basic objectives.

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  • Panels The glazing panels submitted for the construction tests were built at a leading manufacturerof architectural curtain wall panel systems using designs, assembly procedures, and factoryconditions typical of the construction industry. The panels measured 1m by 2m and weremade of laminated glass, double glazed unit glass (DGU) and single pane tempered glass.Similar units with a common one part structural silicone sealant used in the industry werealso fabricated with the exception of the laminated glass construction.

    (3)

    Technical BulletinStructural Performance Tests of 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tapes

    Glass Panel:1. Single Pane 8mm Tempered2. Double Glazed Unit (6mm/10mm/6mm)3. Laminated Glass (4mm/PVB/4mm)

  • (4)

    Technical BulletinStructural Performance Tests of 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tapes

    Panels

    8mm Tempered Glass Panel with:

    Structural Silicone Sealant 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape G23F

    3M VHB TAPE G23F STRUCTURAL SEALANT

    8MM THK CLEAR TEMPERED GLASS 8MM THK CLEAR TEMPERED GLASS

    SPACER TAPE

    WeatherSealant

    3M VHB Tape G23F

  • (5)

    Technical BulletinStructural Performance Tests of 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tapes

    Panels

    Double Glazed Unit with:

    Structural Silicone Sealant 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape G23F

    WEATHER SEALANT

    22MM THK CLEAR TEMPERED DOUBLE GLAZING

    WEATHER SEALANT

    STRUCTURAL SEALANT

    SPACER TAPE

    22MM THK CLEAR TEMPEREDDOUBLE GLAZING

    WeatherSealant

    3M VHB Tape G23F

    3M VHB TAPE G23F

  • (6)

    Technical BulletinStructural Performance Tests of 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tapes

    3M VHB StructuralGlazing Tapes

    3M VHB Structural Glazing Tapes G23F and 4972 have been selected for curtainwall glazing applications due to their acrylic foam tape performance properties whichare suitable for bonding glass to metal frame assemblies. The performance of 3MVHB Structural Glazing Tapes has also been proven with over 15 years ofsuccessful curtain wall applications for glass panels around the world.

    Product Number Adhesive/Foam Type Thickness Tape Color Liner Type

    G23F Acrylic /Conformable 2.3mm (0.090") Grey Red film linerB23F Acrylic /Conformable 2.3mm (0.090") Black Red film liner4972 Acrylic /Conformable 2.0mm (0.080") Grey Green film liner

    A most common proven structural silicone sealant from a well known manufacturerwas used in this study to compare the performance of 3M VHB StructuralGlazing Tapes in similarly designed curtain wall panels.

    Product Description Type

    Structural Sealant One part, neutral cure Architectural grade

    The same weather sealant was used in all the designs. It is also a one part, neutral curesilicone material.

    Panels

    Laminated Glass with 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape 4972

    WEATHER SEALANT

    3M VHB TAPE 4972 8.76MM THK CLEAR LAMINATED GLASS

    3M VHBTape 4972

  • (7)

    Technical BulletinStructural Performance Tests of 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tapes

    Testing 2 sets of panels were subjected to the following test sequences to evaluate theirperformance. The first set of panels consisted of laminated glass (with 3M VHBTape 4972) and double glazed units (one with 3M VHB Tape G23F and one withone part structural silicone sealant). The second set of panels consisted of 8mmtempered glass. One constructed with one part structural silicone sealant and one with3M VHB Tape G23F. Also included in this second set of panels was the DGUconstructed with 3M VHB Tape G23F from the first set of tests. Summaries of thetest methods, observations, and official results are provided on the following pages.While curtain wall systems can incorporate many different designs and materials, thetesting of these typical panels demonstrate the high performance level of 3MVHB Tapes in these demanding applications.

    LaminatedGlass with3M VHBStructuralGlazingTape 4972

    DGU withStructuralSilicone

    DGU with3M VHBStructuralGlazingTape G23F

    Single PaneTempered8mm with3M VHBStructuralGlazingTape G23F

    Single PaneTempered8mm withStructuralSilicone

    DGU with3M VHBStructuralGlazingTape G23F(from previoustests)

    First set of panels

    Second set of panels

  • (8)

    Technical BulletinStructural Performance Tests of 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tapes

    Test Sequence The test sequences (shown in the flow chart below) consisted of measuring the airleakage, water penetration, thermal cycling, air infiltration, water leakage and windload structural performance at ambient conditions, -25C (13F) and elevatedtemperatures at 70C (158F). The air infiltration was done again to confirm the integrityof seal/adhesion properties of both 3M VHB Tapes and the one part structuralsilicone sealant. At the end of the test sequence, the uniform static pressure was thenincreased to more than 200% of the designed wind load in both directions ( pressure).

    Panel Set Up

    TemperatureCycling

    WaterPenetration

    AirInfiltrationE 283

    E 331

    WaterPenetration

    AirInfiltrationE 283

    E 331

    -25C, 70C

    StructuralTests (32C)

    E330

    AirInfiltration

    >200% Wind Load

    Additional tests; notrequired by most

    country codes

    To check integrity of chamberand panels before start of tests

    To check sealing property of3M VHB Tape G23F

    and one part structural sealantafter temperature cycle

    To check sealing property ofweather sealant with 3M

    VHB Tape G23F and structural sealant after

    subjecting to temp. cycle and wind load pressure at

    different conditions

    Thermal Aging A set of three panels, with each panel assembled using 3M VHB Structural GlazingTapes, were given 20 thermal cycles from -25C to 70C (-13F to 158F) with thetemperature extremes held for a minimum of 15 minutes. The cycles subjected the 3MVHB Tapes to thermal aging and stresses due to thermal expansion and contraction ofthe bonded parts. The 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tapes retained complete contactthroughout the thermal cycles, with no loss of adhesion.

  • (9)

    Technical BulletinStructural Performance Tests of 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tapes

    Air Leakage The air infiltration test was conducted in accordance with ASTM E283 Standard TestMethod for Determining Rate of Air Leakage Through Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls,and Doors under Specified Pressure Differences across the Specimen with a staticpressure of 0.3 kPa (6.24 psf), corresponding to an 80 kph (50 mph) wind load. This testwas repeated again at the end of the structural wind load test at elevated temperature.There was no measurable air leakage through the 3M VHB Tapes and the one partstructural silicone sealant bonding the frames around the perimeter of the panels.

    Air Leakage The air infiltration test was conducted in accordance with ASTM E283 Standard TestMethod for Determining Rate of Air Leakage Through Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls,and Doors under Specified Pressure Differences across the Specimen with a staticpressure of 0.3 kPa (6.24 psf), corresponding to an 80 kph (50 mph) wind load. There wasno measurable air leakage for both sets of glass panels demonstrating that 3M VHBStructural Glazing Tape can withstand the severe test conditions (thermal aging andstructural load at extreme temperature settings).

    Water Penetration The water penetration test was performed in accordance with ASTM E331 Standard TestMethod for Water Penetration of Exterior Windows, Skylights, Doors, and Curtain Wallsby Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference with a high pressure water spray under astatic pressure of 0.72 kPa (15 psf) for 15 minutes. The panels assembled with 3MVHB Tapes G23F and 4972 had no water leakage through the tape. Performance wascomparable to that of the one part structural silicone sealant.

    Wind Load StructuralAt ambient 32C (90F),-25C (13F) and 70C (158F)

    The wind load structural test was performed in accordance with ASTM E330 StandardTest Method for Structural Performance of Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls, and Doorsby Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference. The panels were subjected to both positivewind loads (inward acting force) and negative wind loads (outward acting force themost severe direction for frame attachment). The panels were first subjected to loads of0.5, 1.0, 1.9 and 2.9 kPa (10, 20, 40 and 60 psf) in each direction with the peak pressureheld for 1 minute. The 2.9 kPa (60 psf) level represents the basic design pressure for atypical high-rise building or a sustained wind speed of 250 kph (155 mph). The glasspanels were visually inspected after the loads. All glass panels showed no sign of anyvisual defects. The heating and cooling chamber was then set up in front of the glasspanels simulating the external side of the curtain wall. Temperature was lowered to -25C (-13F). Then the panels were subject to loads of 0.5, 1.0, 1.9 and 2.9 kPa (10, 20, 40, and 60 psf) in each direction and held for 1 minute at each pressure load. Thentemperature was increased to 70C (158F) and similar sequences of wind load pressurecycling were conducted. After the structural wind load tests at these temperature settings,the heating/cooling chamber was removed. The panels were inspected visually for anysign of delamination or defects. All glass panels showed no sign of any visual defects. It was noted that there was...

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