Thai Report by Neti

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Training Courses Offer by Thailand International Cooperation Agency (TICA)

Subject: Thailand Report from Sustainable Food Security Base on Postharvest Processing and Quality Assurance of Selected Agro Industry 14th of June to 13th of July, 2016.

Reported by: Peioneti Lui

Travel Impression & ExperienceTransit ExperienceTravel Arrangement It was too tight, as we had just been informed by TICA on 7 June 2016 about our acceptance letter and invitation to participate in the training. Therefore, we had to rush up everything to schedule including lodging transit visa to NZ and tickets before we fly out to New Zealand. It was not a great impression for me with all these last minute arrangements especially when trying to contact the Thai Embassy in NZ for an appointment for us in applying for a visitors visa to Thailand. In addition, once an appointment was sorted, we had to get to their Embassy in Auckland on the next morning of our arrival in NZ, sort out our visa, which we had about 3 hours to do that before we fly out. Luckily we managed to get it before we went straight off to Airport in that afternoon.Travelling to ThailandThis was my first time to travel beyond New Zealand and Australia over to Asia. It was very exciting experience, after the hectic experience in sorting out our visa in NZ. As we arrived in the International Airport in Bangkok around 10pm, it was beautiful and humungous. There was no one to direct us out but we manage to follow through given the signposts at the airport. We finally got to the AOT at the airport where all hotel pickups are based, and we got in the shuttle and went to our hotel. When we reached the hotel we were informed that the training will not start until the 17 June, as there were only 7 out of the expected 19 participants got in so far.On that note, we enjoyed ourselves in the hotel, we had free breakfast and we were happy that the training got delayed so we can have time to look around the complex and to get to know some places in the city. At lunch we manage to visit some of the stalls across the hotel and had lunch there. Again, luckily we were informed about our pocket money that we have to come with, and donor will reimburse us when we got there. As we try to familiar with the place, participants starts arriving everyday and in that weekend, and I just happened to find out that all of us are first time visitors to the country.On the first day of taining, 17 June, a Friday morning, we were directed to gather to the Kasetsart University by bus to meet our course coordinator and this is where we going to house for training. Another upset experience was that on that journey, the bus driver drops us in a wrong place and we had to get another bus from that area to go to Kasetsart University we ask a few students in the bus they know that place and they lead us there. That was a bad experience and it shows that disorganization of the program or even someone to meet us at the hotel and tell us what to do and show us the place to go. But somehow we will not forget the first day of training start when we got lost but luckily it was lost on land and not at sea.. When we get to the University Dr. Juangjun Duangpatra introduced himself to us. He went on to talk about plant for food she is the first lecturer for the first session in the morning and the afternoon we had Professor Dr. Vichai Haruthaithanasan spoke on Food Security and some Factor.

Day 1: Morning SessionPresenter: By Dr. Juangjun DuangpatraDr. Juan Talk about Plants for Food She believe that plant for food is base on human consumption some they grow plant for Food some they grow plant for Feed some they grow plant for Fuel but it dependent how they interesting on using plant for as used for Food for their family needs or they used it for animal Feed or they used it to make a Fuel for machine such as vehicle etc. She also talks about what is crop? She define crops is Agronomy mean Field Crop has different type Vegetable and Flower, Ornamental, Fruit and Tree or Others. She differentiate crops from plant, she define plant as everything you look outside it surround the environment has green color and it taking carbon hydrate for photosynthesis process. Different from crops has specific reason why you growing crops for your own consumption and it can be for food, feed and fuel.Crop (Plant) Production has two main Factors that rely on it such as Variety and Environment. For Variety it talks about Genetic engineering, and Environment talk about Climate and Weather Condition. Some Crops that u might selected due to a good variety and depend on their environment which may due to Climate and Weather Condition. For example some of the plant breeder they have research and doing some practice on Genetic engineering like cross breeding some plant that can tolerant to drought or flood season due to climate change. In this case those two main factors they will affect your yield of your crops if you not manage it well and find the specific crops to grow on a right time on good Environment condition. Some spices can grow well on drought season and had high yield some are not, but they grow well on rain season and if it flood they still survive and get a high yield production.This Diagram may help to determine those two Factor has affect Crops on Yield Production.


Variety(Genetics)Weather (Yield)Climate(Kind/Species)Environment

The Outcome might be Genetic + Environment = YieldThis diagram show that all those Factors may interaction to each other for high yield production if you miss out one of those Factors you will accepted fact of low yield production or nothing at all. If you do not manage well you Crops to grow which mean you chose the right Variety of Crops for most favorable Environment Condition then accept the consequences of low yield production or nothing at all. But if you do the right selection you will end up with high expectation of high yield production.

Crop Production ManagementIf you chose a good variety for grow you might be thinking about that contents of that cultivar cause they might be pure line which mean it come from the mother plant or self pollination, in breed which mean that cross pollination and last it open pollinated variety which mean can be pollinated of anyhow its is more easier. Somehow that Hybrid it most concern by people because they will produce high yield but they never know it just only once while they used it they cant used again. Because Hybrid it only final genetic engineering which may consist a high generous species for a while but after sometime will not be longer used cause they will not continuously fertilization it just only a artificial fertilization which made a hybrid species has been done by a plant breeder at Tissue Culture.There are some component you need to know about that variety you select due to fertilizer, soil, water and pest you have to ensure that cultivar has those component. An example if you chose a good variety that can be monitored Fertilizer in the soil with good holding water capacity and resistant to pest and disease on the environment.Here some diagram might be illustrate those interact Components needed for selection a best Variety.


Pure LineInbreed LineOpen Pollinated VarietyHybrid

The Aspects of Post HarvestPost harvest is a harvesting time up to the harvested materials are consumed (utilize, used).Harvesting material its a quantity or amount of production that which determine in volume and weight and also in quality which means that texture or the tasty of that production. For an example if its maize the quantity it how much yields that you harvest their volume or their total weight, and for quality its that maize it seeds or its grain. Seeds or Grains are the mature ovary or mature ovule or mature fruit. Seeds is viable and genetically purity (variety) vigor it good for planting but Grains could be viable or non viable and it for consumption because it good taste, good flavor, and good nutrition. When we harvest Maize we have to wait until it reach maximum yield (seed/grain yield).

Day 1: Afternoon SessionPresenter: By Dr. Vichai HaruthaithanasanDr. Vichai talk about Food Security, he define food security it exist when all people at all times have physical social an economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for active and healthy life. He defined also Self Sufficient, which mean to have enough food consumption by ourselves not including buying. There a two basic factor which concerning about security. First one is population and the second one is food those two factor need to be balance to secure the risk of self-sufficient.Food Security is depended upon 4 basic factors.1. Availability2. Access3. Utilization4. StabilityAvailability means, the availability of foods either self sufficient/import/surplus for export that is food security. Access means, we have money to buy our foods in every place in the world. We should have to education and work done to get buying power. Utilization means, we know what to eat for our health and safe. We should have knowledge on hygiene, nutrition and good health. Stability means, we can approach to get our foods in every place in the world either buy/self sufficient that is food security.

There is some Factors Affects Food Security.1. Climate Change2. Free Trade Area and Unlimited Investment 3. Change of Land Uses4. Pest/Disease Break5. Oil CrisisClimate Change occurred due to Carbon Dioxide and Methane Gas penetrate and eliminate the ozone layer which the Green House that protect the planet from heat of sunlight. In this situation that most Industries that produce product they had evacuate much of that effective gas to the atmosphere and it expose to the ozone layer and will make space for the sunlight which increasing the heat in the world would be change the climate as well. Free Trade Area now there are many agreements on trade bilateral, trilateral and multilateral is effective. Its mean no tax and barrier on trade. So it is very high competitive on trade. Its selects the stronger and eliminates weaker. At the beginning to take time to adapt, especially agriculture. It is strong in some and weak in some produce, for the long run it is good for all. Whenever we talk about Unlimited Investment the rich person gets advantaged and can control almost all. Change of Land Uses the richer can buy and build almost everything. The richer can change the land for other purposes. Finally they can control all. Pest is cover all insects and Diseases, when it out break it destroys primary agricultural produce include animal and fish. Oil Crisis is due to the increase of price. So it affects to every sectors. The increasing of price is not related to any others. So the of produce increase but buying power is reduce. Day 2: Morning SessionPresenter: By Dr. Vichai HaruthaithanasanDr. Vichai present about Food Preservation base on tropical fruits, vegetables, sea product and animal production. Deterioration of fresh foods may cause by three main factors after post-harvest.1. Physiological deterioration 2. Mechanical damage or Physical injury3. Disease and pestPhysiological deterioration cause by respiration on fruits, due to the process of intake product such as carbon hydrate plus oxygen and the output or the product will carbon dioxide plus water plus heat will help to ripening and change the color of the fruits. Composition changes will distinguish by the size and the color of the product which stage it better for harvest. Growth Development some fruits they had sprout development such as onion if u harvest the bulb onion over mature the new sprout or plant start to growing/develop inside the onion bulb. Transpiration is water loss from the fruits while u harvest the fruit you must ensure that you will reduce water loss from the fruit to maintain their good quality. Which mean you might put your product in a low temperature place such as cooler place to prevent water loss. Food preservation is well known how to preventive spoilageMethods of preventing decay or deterioration of foods, the fruit or vegetable is harvested, milk is drawn, eggs are gathered, fish is obtained from natural waters, and animals are collected and slaughtered. All kinds of food produces are carrying contaminating microorganisms from natural sources. The processors attempts to cleanse and sanitize equipment coming to contact with food, to reduce contamination and use proper packaging to protect directly from microorganisms.There are 2 types of microorganism causing decay of foods.1. Yeast and Mold is capable of main causing the deterioration of acids foods (pH4.5) such as milk, meat and fish.Preservation might be used Chilling and Freezing methods, Chilling process is using condition at >0-10 degree C. Standard temperature is 4 degree C the purpose of chilling process is to keep the fresh foods or mild processed foods for a short time period, may be a week. Freezing process is using condition at