The Balance of Power in Europe

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<p>CUKUROVA UNIVERSITY</p> <p>DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS</p> <p>THE BALANCE OF POWER IN EUROPEBY ERAY ARIK</p> <p>1</p> <p>CUKUROVA UNIVERSITY</p> <p>DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS</p> <p>TABLE OF CONTENT Table of Content............................................................................................................................. .........2 Part I) The World War...................................................................................................... ........................ 3 1. The Process of Starting the WWI....................................................................................... .................. 3 2. The Reasons of the WWI.................................... ................................................................................ .3 3. The Descriptions of Balance of Power..................................................... ........................................... .3 Part II) From The Universality to the Stability......................................................... ................................4 Part III) The Role of France in the Balance of Power................................................ ............................... 5 Armand Jean Du Plessis de Richelieu and Raison d tat Part IV) The Role of England in the Balance of Power Part V) The Role of Austro-Hungary in the Balance of Power 5 7 8</p> <p>Metternich System............................................................................................................................. .....8 Part VI) The Role of Prussia in the Balance of Power Otto von Bismarck and His Political Strategy: Realpolitic Part VII) Conclusion: The Transformation of the Realpolitic to Weltpolitic and the WWI. 9 9 11</p> <p>Bibliography................................................................................................................. ......................... .12</p> <p>2</p> <p>CUKUROVA UNIVERSITY</p> <p>DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS</p> <p>PART I) THE WORLD WAR I 1) THE PROCESS OF STARTING THE WWI Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was visiting to Sarajevo with her wife, Princess Sophie von Hohenberg. The date is on June 28, 1914 (on the twentieth of June in 1914). On Sunday and at approximately 01.15 p.m. Franz Ferdinand and his wife were killed by Gavrilo Princip. At the result of this assassination a big war which will last throughout four years started. And three state; Tsarist Russia, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires collapsed. Besides, nine million soldiers and six million civilian died. At the total fifteen people died in this the war. What was real reason of this war? Was Archduke Franz Ferdinand killed by Gavrilo Princip? Or what else were there reasons? 2) y y y y y y y THE REASONS OF THE WWI Industrialization, Searching raw material and new markets, Political and economic competition, Arms race, Unified Germany and Unified Italy, Nationalism, The states in Europe formed two different blocs.</p> <p>All of these are a reason of this horrible war. Are these real reasons of the World War I, according to you? Real and general reason of this war was that the balance of power in Europe collapsed. The balance of power lasted throughout about 400 years and it prevented that big wars happened. Of course, wars happened in Europe like the Wars of the Roses, Thirty Years War, Seven Years War, and Napoleonic Wars. But these wars weren t as terrible as the WW1 and during these wars, the leaders in Europe succeeded to protect the stability and the flexibility of diplomacy in Europe. Ok, what is the balance of power? How and when did it exist in Europe? How and why did it collapse? In fact, to be able to understand this, we must study approximately four hundred years old history of Europe. But because of having limited time, I ll try to tell you this history briefly. 3) THE DESCRIPTIONS OF BALANCE OF POWER We can make different descriptions of the balance of power. 1. A situation in which political or military strength is shared evenly. (the description of Longman Dictionary) 2. A phrase in international law for such a "just equilibrium" between the members of the family of nations as should prevent any one of them from becoming sufficiently strong to enforce its will upon the rest. (the Britannica Encyclopaedia, 11th edition) 3. In international relations, a balance of power exists when there is parity or stability between competing forces. As a term in international law for a 'just equilibrium' between the 3</p> <p>CUKUROVA UNIVERSITY</p> <p>DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS</p> <p>members of the family of nations, it expresses the doctrine intended to prevent any one nation from becoming sufficiently strong so as to enable it to enforce its will upon the rest. (Balance of Power in International Relations, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) 4. A doctrine and an arrangement whereby the power of one state or group of states is checked by the countervailing power of other states. (Robert H. Jackson, The Evolution of International Society, page 36) PART II) FROM THE UNIVERSALITY TO THE STABILITY The system which is described by historians as Europe Power System existed in the XVII. Century after the universality of the middle Ages collapsed. This used to be accepted as the concept of a world order which combined the traditions of the Roman Empire and Roman Catholic Church. According these ideologies, the world is a reflection of the sky and an emperor must govern secular world and universal church like a god. Because only one God was ruling the Heaven. The feudal states in Italy and Germany were been governing by the Holly Roman Empire. This empire became as powerful as being going to govern all Europe. But Holly Roman Empire could never reach central control level to do this. The disagreements between Pope and emperor created constitutionalism and separation of power which is principles of democracy in the middle Europe. Feudal States get new rights for their managements by using these disagreements. In conclusion, this situation caused that Europe smashed. The rulers these feudal states were theoretically faithful to the emperor but they were doing something they wanted in practice. Different dynasties asserted that they have the rights to govern Holly Roman Empire and that s why, this situation disappeared central power of the emperor. Although the emperor didn t have such power to become the reality this, they couldn t give up their dreams regarding to old universal managements. Besides, even though France, Spain and Great Britannia were parts of Universal Church, they didn t recognize the authority of Holly Roman Empire. Holly Roman Empire couldn t transform its universal demands from claims into a politic system until Habsburg dynasty got the throne of Spain and wide lands XVI. century. In the first half of sixteenth century, the period emperor Charles I, the empire was including Germany, Austria, Northern Italy, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungry, East France, Belgium and Holland of today. The separation into groups like this had powerful enough to prevent that new formation can be appeared like power stability in Europe. While all of these were been living, Holly Roman Empire lost its hopes. Because XVI. Century Roman Catholic Church decreased its own power due to the Reformation. The emperors wanted that people recognized themselves as a representative of God in the Earth. But XVI. Century the emperors were accepted as combatants from Vienna on Protestant lands. The Reformation gave new rights to the princes like doing something they wanted in the religious and political areas. The meaning of this was that they interrupted connections with Holly Roman Empire and religious universality. The struggles of the princes with Habsburg Emperor also were proving that the loyalties of the princes against the emperor weren t a religious duty anymore.</p> <p>4</p> <p>CUKUROVA UNIVERSITY</p> <p>DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS</p> <p>PART III) THE ROLE OF FRANCE IN THE BALANCE OF POWER ARMAND JEAN DU PLESSIS DE RICHEIEU AND RAISON D ETAT Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu was a politician and religious functionary. Besides, he was a prince Roman Catholic Church and the prime minister of France between 1624 and 1642 years. After the concept of unity collapsed in Europe, new states which were founded in Europe needed a new concept to show themselves the justice at their heresy and to order the relationships between each other. They found something in these concepts; Raison d tat and balance of power . Raison d tat refers to that a state has rights to do everything and use every ways if they make the state stronger. National interests were taking place of the universal ethics and universal monarchy was also taking place of balance of power. According to them, a state which was trying to reach its egoistic goals assists the security and development of other states. While Holly Roman Empire was trying to provide central authority, the first state which resisted to this became France. Because if Holly Roman Empire provided central authority and got stronger, this situation would seriously damage France. That s why; France started to use the competitions between other states after the Reformation. According to the rulers from France, if Holly Roman Empire loses power, even destroy, F rance will feel in more confidence, even may expand to the east. Richelieu who realized and was effective in his history was also the father of modern state system. He created the concept, Raison d tat and he used it mercilessly against other states. Thanks to Richelieu Raison d tat took place of the universal ethics values of the Middle Ages as a fundamental principle of French policies. When Richelieu became the Prime Minister of France in 1624, Ferdinand II of Habsburg Holly Roman Emperor was trying to revive Catholic Religion by destroying Protestantism and to provide authority on the princes in Middle Europe. This process caused Thirty Years Wars. In fact, Richelieu who was a prince of Catholic Church needed to support Ferdinand II. But the national interests of France were more important than every kind of religious purposes. According to Richelieu, this enterprise of Ferdinand II was a geopolitical threat and against France. This enterprise was also a strategy Austria did to provide authority in Middle Europe and to remove France to the second status. In fact, Richelieu s fears weren t without a reason. Looking at the map of Europe was enough to see that France was surrounded by Habsburg lands. There was Spain in the south of France, Northern Italy city-states which were governed by Habsburg. These city-states were in the southeast of France. Besides, there was Franche-Comt (the surroundings of Lyon and Savoy of today) which was governed by Habsburg. Some places which weren t able to be managed by Habsburg were controlled by Austria branch of Habsburg dynasty. If Habsburg got Northern Germany under the control, France would lose its own power dangerously.</p> <p>5</p> <p>CUKUROVA UNIVERSITY</p> <p>DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS</p> <p>Richelieu, in 1629, the 11th year of the war, could utilize the opportunities Ferdinand II had better. Because Protestant Princes were ready to accept the authority of Habsburg if Ferdinand II allowed that the princes could choose the religion they wanted and protect the lands they won during the Reformation. But Ferdinand II couldn t throw religion to the second plan for political necessities. He preferred to command regarding to giving back lands which were taken from the church since 1555 instead of protect in his own authority by accepting such a suggestion which would have been a victory for himself. Richelieu decided that this war lasted more long while and for this, he worked. He gave new liberties to Protestants in France with the Donation of Alais. These were the liberties the emperor didn t want to give to German Princes. Therefore, Richelieu who protected your countries from the disorders in Middle Europe started to use Ferdinand s religious ideals against him. The emperor who couldn t understand their interests gave the opportunities to the president of France, Richelieu to support Protestant German Princes against the emperor. Richelieu began to give money to Protestants. Catholic King of France, Louis XIII was never able to come to his memory an idea regarding to undertaking to protect Protestant Princes against the emperor s aims of centralization. Richelieu who was a prince of Catholic Church was helping Protestant King of Sweden, Gustav Adolf and giving him money to war against Holly Roman Empire. This event left very important effects like French Revolutions. The aim of Richelieu was to rescue France which was surrounded with enemies and to prevent that new power appeared at the boundaries of France especially the boundaries France and Germany--. To make this aim reality, Richelieu made agreements with firstly Protestants and then the Muslim in Ottoman Empire. He was ready to lengthen the time of the war and to exhaust the states which made wars. He gave money to the enemies of the enemies, incited people against Holly Roman Empire, supported these revolts with money and used the best the conditions which consisted of the struggle of dynasty and legal conflicts. At last of these Richelieu was very successful and the war which started in 1618 lasted until a long while, 1648. I think that s why; the historians said to these wars Thirteen Years War . While Germany was destroying at these wars, France waited in a side. Richelieu wouldn t get anything if he had made an agreement before the King of France became as powerful as the emperor of Habsburg. Because of this, Richelieu, to reach his aims, persuaded the King of France regarding to entering to the war against Holly Roman Empire. So France sided with Protestants at these wars and it made this to show the power of France by considering that this was a great opportunity. If a state want to use Raison d tat policy successfully, it must evaluate the relationships between powers correctly. Universal values evaluate according to the form of perceiving and it is not necessary to comment them continually. In fact, if these values comment continually and again, this situation could cause mistake comments. To determine boundaries of power is necessary that the composition of the experience and foresight adjusts according to the conditions. The balance of power must certainly be calculated theoretically. But while this is applied, it is difficult to do by depending on facts. It is more complicated to be able to provide the harmony between the balance of power and our calculations. This harmony is very important to protect the balance of power. The compromises which occur over the nature of the balance sometimes appear with conflicts.</p> <p>6</p> <p>CUKUROVA UNIVERSITY</p> <p>DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS</p> <p>Richelieu who used Raison d tat to reach his aims, to show his own rightfulness to peo...</p>