The Cold WarPolitical, Social, and Economic Causes
Consequences of WWII
Staggering casualties & refugee problem Rise of U.S. and USSR, decline of Europe Decolonization worldwide Discrediting of Social Darwinism
The United NationsEstablished immediately after WWII Military power, unlike League of Nations Permanent council members (veto powers): U.S., U.S.S.R. (now Russia), France, Great Britain, China
DecolonizationBegan after WWII India and Pakistan, 1947 Palestine, 1947 Egypt, 1956 Africa, 1950s-70s Dutch East Indies, 1949 Vietnam, 1940s-70s Caribbean, 1960s-1970s
Israels BirthPalestine mostly Arab, minority Jewish population exploded after WWII (Holocaust survivors) 1947 - British gave up, turned area over to U.N. U.N. partitioned Jewish and Arab areas 1948 - New state of Israel attacked by Arab neighbors. Israel won with U.S. aid. Refugees from war not allowed back in, still in camps ringing Israel Further wars in 1960s added more Jewish territory
India and PakistanFreed from British control (since 1600s) in 1947 Hindu majority, Muslim minority--resulted in two countries Fighting since over Kashmir contested region on border U.S. allied with India, Soviets supported Pakistan
EgyptNominally independent since 1922; British interest: Suez Canal Canal built 1869, connects Atlantic & Mediterranean, Indian & Red Seas 14% total world trade; 26% oil, 41% total trade from Gulf states Canal nationalized in 1956 by Egyptian President Abdul Nassar USSR announced support of Egypt U.S. forbid Israeli/European interference; Canal transferred to Egyptian control
Political Cause - ContainmentYalta Conference, 1945 Division of Eastern & Western Europe Division of Germany and Berlin Stalinist elections: Poland (1947), Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia (1947-48)
U.S. Attempts to Contain CommunismTruman Doctrine, 1947 Marshall Plan, 1947 Berlin Airlift, 1948-49 North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO
Truman Doctrine, 1947 Triggered by communist insurrections in Greece and Turkey
Promised U.S. aid to any nation fighting communism
Marshall Plan 1947-51: U.S. provided 9.4 billion to rebuild after WWII Stalin refused to allow East to take part
Berlin Blockade and Airlift 1948-49 Germany & Berlin divided at Potsdam into four zones 1948: Three zones united into West Germany Stalin blockaded West Berlin 321 day airlift Stalin withdrew blockade in 1949 Result: two Germanys, East and West
NATO vs. Warsaw PactNATOAn attack against one or more of them shall be considered an attack against them all.Collective Security Warsaw PactCreated in response to NATOConsisted of the Soviet Union and her Satellite nations .
Increasing Cold War Tensions, 1950s-early 60s 1949: Chinese Revolution 1949: Soviets get atomic bomb 1950-53: Korean War 1959: Sputnik 1960: U-2 incident 1961: Bay of Pigs 1961: Berlin Wall 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis
PoliticalSocialEconomicContainment Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Berlin Blockade Communist Spread Sputnik Bay of Pigs Cuban Missile Crisis
Social Cause - FearNuclear HolocaustMcCarthyism theres a commie under every bedLosing the Space RaceSpy TechnologyThe Domino TheorySocial Unrest of the 60s and 70
Nuclear HolocaustNuclear weapons have been at the heart of many national and international political disputes and have played a major part in popular culture since their dramatic public debut in the 1940s and have usually symbolized the ultimate ability of mankind to utilize the strength of nature for destruction.Miss Atomic Bomb, 1957
McCarthyism Early 1950sThe term derives from U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy, a Republican of Wisconsin. During this time people in a variety of situations, primarily those employed in government, in the entertainment industry or in education, were accused of being Communists or communist sympathizers and became the subject of aggressive investigations and questioning before various government or privately run panels Senator Joe McCarthy
The Hollywood Ten
The Space RaceSputnik - The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a basketball, weighed only 183 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path. Yuri Gagarin - On April 12, 1961, Gagarin became the first human to travel into space
May1960 - U-2 IncidentThe Russian military shot it down flying 15 miles high in Soviet territory.The United States thought the U-2 Spy Plane was immured to attack.
The Domino Theory in Southeast Asia if one country fell to communism then the rest wouldThe Korean Conflict 1950 - 1953The Vietnam Conflict 1959 - 1974
Social Unrest of the 60s & 70s
One of the most widely known symbols in the world, in Britain it is recognized as standing for nuclear disarmament. It was designed in 1958 by Gerald Holtom, a professional designer and artist and a graduate of the Royal College of Arts.
PoliticalSocialEconomicContainment Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Berlin Blockade Communist Spread Sputnik Bay of Pigs Cuban Missile CrisisFear Atomic war between the US and USSR Communists taking over our country The Soviets dominating the space and spy technology All of southeast Asia becoming communist and Cuba being communist The Social Revolution/changes of the 60s and 70s
Economic Cause - GlobalizationThe United States wanted to encourage free trade throughout the world. The Soviet Union wanted to shield off her own sphere from international commerce. Russia feared that trade with the West would involve the risk of Russia being opened to western influences which would have eroded the strength of the totalitarian regime. These differences led to much ill feeling between the United States and the Soviet Union.
What is Globalization?Is it the integration of economic, political, and cultural systems across the globe? Or is it Americanization and United States dominance of world affairs? Is globalization a force for economic growth, prosperity, and democratic freedom? Or is it a force for environmental devastation, exploitation of the developing world, and suppression of human rights?
The United States wanted Globalization becauseIt expanded our Market Economy, we could now sell Levis and Coca Cola to communist countries.Large companies that are now permitted to set up businesses in communist countries - in the past they were not Bottom line it increased the standard of living for Americans $$$$$$$$$$$$$$
The Soviets rejected Globalization becauseExposure through trade to other non-communist countries threatened the tight control the government had over its citizensThe transition to Globalization was more difficult with a Command Economy.
PoliticalSocialEconomicContainment Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Berlin Blockade Communist Spread Sputnik Bay of Pigs Cuban Missile CrisisFear Atomic war between the US and USSR Communists taking over our country The Soviets dominating the space and spy technology All of southeast Asia becoming communist and Cuba being communist The Social Revolution/changes of the 60s and 70sGlobalization The US profited from it because we have a market economy. The Soviets risked opening a closed society up to the rest of the world which ultimately lead to the collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union and eastern Europe.