Text of THE COLD WAR 1945-1990. CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR â€œCausesâ€ Debated...
THE COLD WAR 1945-1990
CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR
Causes Debated Consistent US, British, & French hostility towards Soviets since 1917 revolution Stalins aggressive policies & seizure of Poland made West fear Soviet expansionism Suspicions throughout WWII Truman ended aid to Stalins troops immediately in 1945 Stalin thought Soviet Union needed a buffer zone in Europe Truman viewed it as communist takeover US officials portrayed Stalin as a tyrant
END OF WWII During and before WWII, there was a mistrust between the western Allies and the Soviet Union Stalins crimes were known Feared communism End of the war = 2 superpowers emerged United States democracy; capitalist Soviet Union communist Quickly began spreading influence in respective spheres
Different Goals United States Encourage democracy Prevent spread of Communist governments Gain access to markets & raw materials to fuel industry Rebuild European governments for stability & trade Reunite Germany to stabilize it & increase security of Europe Soviet Union Encourage communism & global workers revolution Rebuild war-ravaged economy using Eastern Europes industrial equipment & raw materials Control Eastern Europe to protect borders & balance US influence Keep Germany divided to prevent its waging war again
The Iron Curtain US allied with other democratic/capitalist nations & spread its influence to others emerging from WWII Major Allies = Great Britain & France Additionally = Spain, W. Germany, Italy, Turkey, Norway, Greece Soviet Union occupied much of Eastern Europe Red Army had liberated area from Nazi control Nations became satellite states of the USSR Installed communist governments Poland, E. Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria Churchill nicknamed the division in Europe the Iron Curtain
Division of Germany Agreements at Yalta & Potsdam Peace Conferences split Germany into 4 occupied zones Each controlled by Allied victor Great Britain, France, US, and Soviet Union Berlin (capital) also split East & West Disagreement on how to treat Germany US reprogram German attitude through censorship & confronting Nazi past USSR crush Nazism (extreme capitalism) with communism & redistribute land Western Allies merged individual zones into West Germany in 1948 Escalated Cold War tensions US also began economic buildup of W. Germany through Marshall Plan aid Notions of permanently weakened Germany ended by 48 Stalin retaliated by blockading Berlin Berlin surrounded by USSR occupied zone cut off railways to bring in supplies Allies responded with the Berlin Airlift 1948- 1949 Dropped food, supplies, & even coal to Berliners Stalin ended blockade May 1949
COLD WAR CHARACTERISTICS
Cold War Leaders Soviet Union Led by leader of the Communist Party Joseph Stalin [1920s-1953] Georgy Malenkov [1953-1955] Nikita Krushchev [1955- 1964] Leonid Brezhnev [1964-1982] Yuri Andropov [1982-1984] Constantin Cherenko [1984- 1985] Mikhail Gorbachev [1985- 1991] United States Led by democratically elected President Dwight D. Eisenhower 1961] John F. Kennedy [1961-1963] Lyndon B. Johnson [1963- 1969] Richard Nixon [1969-1974] Gerald Ford [1974-1977] Jimmy Carter [1977-1981] Ronald Reagan [1981-1989] George H.W. Bush [1989- 1993]
US Foreign Policy Concepts Truman Doctrine, 1947 US provides political, military, & economic aid to democratic nations under threat from external or internal authoritarian forces Justified intervention in countries at risk of falling to communism Example = aided Greek government against communists in its civil war in 1940s Example = aided Turkey, which had lost British aid Reoriented foreign policy away from isolation to one of intervention in far away conflicts Marshall Plan [European Recovery Program] 1948 US initiative to aid Europe & Asia in postwar recovery named for Sect. of State George C. Marshall Rebuild European economies to be stable for trade Gave $13 Billion [$120B today] most to Great Britain, France, and West Germany Fanned by fear of communist expansion & rapid deterioration of European economies in the winter of 1946-47 Generated resurgence of European industrialization & increased investment Very suspicious to Moscow Containment, 1947-1989 Foreign policy developed by George F. Kennan Basic strategy for the Cold War keep communism & Russian domination from spreading Counter Soviet pressure against free institutions of the Western world through counter-force at a series of constantly shifting geographical and political points Very controversial required US to intervene wherever Soviets had eyes
Opposing Alliances North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 1949 [NATO] Military alliance of Western European & North American states Against USSR & its Eastern European allies Attack on any one member armed force by all member nations Warsaw Pact, 1955 Treaty binding the Soviet Union and countries of Eastern Europe Formed in response to NATO
Nuclear Arms Race & MAD World saw US use nuclear bombs at end of WWII Prompted race to build up nuclear capabilities among developed nations USSR wanted parity with US Other Western Allies also developed nuclear weapons Harsh words heightened tension & threat of using atomic weapons Eisenhower: US would reduce USSR to a smoking, radiating ruin at the end of two hours Khrushchev: We will bury you. Brinkmanship tactic of appearing to be on the verge of war to persuade the opposition to retreat Tensions almost erupted in war in 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis Soviet Union deployed missiles to Cuba in response to US attempts to overthrow Cuban government Soviets supported Castro Chose diplomacy over war in the end Nuclear weapons never used though due to theory of mutually assured destruction Use of bomb on one side would cause use by the other Nuclear holocaust End of mankind?
Nuclear Arms Limits Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963 US, USSR, & Great Britain Johnson called for strategic arms limitation talks [SALT] in 1967 USSR had been building an Anti-Ballistic Missile defense around Moscow, enabling them to launch a missile & then shoot down incoming ones Believed limiting development of offensive & defensive systems would stabilize USSR-US relations Continued by Nixon 1968 US & USSR proposed world treaty against further proliferation, leading to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty signed by 137 countries Negotiated weapons limits 1972 Helsinki Accords Affirmed boundaries & called for economic, social, & governmental contacts and cooperation in humanitarian fields between two alliances SALT II built upon SALT in 1972-1979 SALT I didnt prevent each side from enlarging their forces SALT II focused on limiting & ultimately reducing Multiple Independently Targeted Re-Entry Vehicles [MIRVs] Ford & Brezhnev agreed on basic framework in Nov. 1974 Still didnt have # cap on strategic bombers or total # warheads Carter & Brezhnev signed SALT II Treaty in Vienna 1979 Limited nuclear forces to 2,250 delivery vehicles Variety of other restrictions, including MIRVs Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty pursued by Reagan after SALT IIs expiration 1985 Argued that research in the Strategic Defense Initiative adhered to 1972 treaty Dtente permanetn relaxation in international affairs in the Cold War Vietnam shocked people Growing fear of nuclear holocaust Increased talks & visitation of leaders
Space Race Coincided with nuclear arms race Battling science & technology for greatness Contest to launch space satellites Soviet Union launched Sputnik into orbit in 1957 US launched own satellite 3 months later US placed first men on the moon Neil Armstrong & Buzz Aldrin in 1969
Proxy Wars US & USSR didnt directly battle each other, rather they supported opposing sides in other conflicts Cuba, 1950s--- USSR supported Castro regime US assisted former dictator Batista CIA even trained anti-Castro Cuban exiles in 1960, invading (and failing miserably) in April 1961 at Bay of Pigs Augmented by Cuban Missile Crisis Nicaragua, 1970s Dictator Somoza funded by the US, but both US and USSR aided the rebel Sandinistas and their leader Daniel Ortega Sandinistas toppled leader in 1979, then gave assistance to other Marxist Rebels in El Salvador US supported anti-Communist forces Contras to help El Salvador fight rebels Civil War lasted more than a decade & weakened Nicaraguan economy Ortega did hold free elections in 1990, when he was beaten, but later reelected in 2006 Iran, 1950s Oil-rich lands attracted both superpowers US supported the Shah in westernization & suppressing conservative Muslim leaders, including Ayatollah Rubolla Khomeini Khomeini returned from exile & established an Islamic state, requiring strict adherence to Islam Hatred of US at heart of foreign policy Encouraged Muslims everywhere to overthrow secular governments War erupted with Iraq in 1980 US secretly aided both sides; USSR aided Iraq 1M died before UN negotiated ceasefire in 1988