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  • The Islamic university of Gaza Deanery of Postgraduate Studies Faculty of Education Curriculum & English Teaching Methods Department

    The Impact of Using Question Answer Relationships

    Strategy on Enhancing Sixth Graders Higher Order

    Thinking Skills in Reading and Their Attitudes

    Toward it

    Presented by

    Rania Deeb Abd al-Rahman al-Kafarna

    Supervised by Prof. Awad Sulaiman Kishta

    A Thesis Submitted to the Curriculum & English Teaching Methods Department-

    Faculty of Education - in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Master Degree in Education


  • I

    In the Name of Allah the Most Merciful the most Gracious

  • II

    (Quran, Al-Qalam, verse 1)

  • III


    I would like to dedicate my work:

    To Allah, who is the source of wisdom, patience, and infinite love.

    To our prophet Mohammed, peace be upon him.

    To my beloved country, Palestine.

    To the soul of my father.

    To my mother, who has scarified everything in her life for us.

    To my husband, who tolerated a lot to let me continue my higher studies

    To my beloved sons and daughters, who endured a lot to let me continue.

    To all my brothers and sisters, who have been supporting and encouraging me.

    To my sincere friends.

    To my university, The Islamic University of Gaza.

    To the great martyrs and prisoners, the symbol of sacrifice.

    To all who lightened my way towards success.

    To all knowledge seekers.

  • IV


    My deep thanks and gratitude are due to Allah, the Almighty, Who granted me knowledge and bestowed His everlasting mercies and bounties upon me during this long journey. Without His support and guidance, this work would not have been possible. I would like to thank my supervisor, Prof. Awad Kishta for his support, advice and encouragement throughout this study. My special thanks and gratitude are paid to Misses Maha Barzaq and Dr. Mohammed Atya Abedul Raheem , for their support, advice and encouragement. I am also thankful to the principal, teachers and students of Beit Hanoun Elem Coed "A" school where the study was carried out . Special thanks and strong appreciation are due to my colleagues My deep thanks and appreciation are extended to my beloved family for their patience and consistent support during this period. Finally, I reiterate my cordial acknowledgement and high appreciation to those who helped me in this study

  • V


    The Impact of Using Question Answer Relationships Strategy on Enhancing

    sixth Graders Higher Order Thinking Skills in Reading and Their Attitudes

    Toward it

    The study aimed to investigate the impact of using Question Answer Relationships strategy on enhancing sixth graders' Higher Order Thinking Skills in

    Reading and their attitude toward Reading. The target skills were analysis, synthesis,

    and evaluation .For answering the questions of the study, the researcher adopted the

    experimental design . The sample of the study consisted of (77)students distributed

    into two groups. One of the groups represented the experimental group of (38)

    students; and the other represented the control one of (39) students. The groups were

    randomly chosen from UNRWA Beit Hanoun Elem Coed "A" School in Gaza Strip.

    The Question Answer Relationships strategy was used in teaching the experimental

    group while the traditional method was used with the control one in the second term

    of the school year (2013-2014). For collecting the data the researcher constructed

    three tools (The Higher Order Thinking Skills test of three skills with (28)items was

    designed and validated to be used as a pre and post test and a scale with (30)items to

    measure the students attitudes toward reading in the English language for the sixth

    graders was used .In addition, the researcher use an observation card as a supportive

    tool to measure the experimental group development in acquiring Higher Order

    Thinking Skills.

    The data of the study were analyzed using T-test independent sample, which was used

    to determine significant differences between the groups . Effect size technique was

    used to measure the effect size of the Question Answer Relationships strategy on the

    experimental group in each scope of the higher order thinking test.

    The results indicated that there were statistically significant differences between both

    groups in favor the experimental one. The effect size technique indicated a large

    effect of the Question Answer Relationships strategy on improving synthesis, and

    evaluation skills while it had a medium effect on improving analysis skills for the

    experimental group. The results of the observation card showed a large effect on the

    students performance in all HOTS domains through using Question Answer

    Relationships strategy. The attitude scale indicated that there were no statistically

    significant differences between the experimental and the control group's attitude

    toward reading in post application. .

    The study recommended to use the QAR strategy in teaching English language to

    improve students' higher order thinking and reading comprehension . It was also

    suggested to conducted further research investigate the effectiveness of QAR

    strategy on developing the students' HOTS in other school subjects.

  • VI

    Arabic Abstract



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  • VII

  • VIII

    Table of content

    Chapter I

    Study Background

    1 Introduction 1.1

    5 Statement of the Problem 1.2

    6 Research Questions 1.3

    6 Research Hypotheses 1.4

    7 Purposes of the Study 1.5

    7 Significance of the Study 1.6

    8 Limitations of the Study 1.7

    9 Variables of the Study 1.8

    9 Definition of Operational Terms 1.9

    10 Summary 1.10

    Chapter II

    Part 1 : Theoretical Framework

    12 The First Domain: Higher Order Thinking Skills 2

    12 Theories Related to Learning Higher Order Thinking Skills 2.1

    18 Definition of Higher Order Thinking Skills 2.2

    19 Types of Thinking 2.3

    22 The Possibility of Teaching Thinking 2.4

    22 The importance of Teaching Higher Order Thinking Skills 2.5

    23 Developing Thinking Skills in Taught Young Learners 2.6

    24 Combination of Thinking Skills 2.7

    24 Developing Higher level Thinking 2.8

    26 Teaching Skills Through Real World Context 2.9

    28 Practical Steps for Implementing Higher Order Thinking Questioning 2.10

    29 Teaching Strategies 2.11

    35 Families and Out of School Educators Can Encourage Higher Order Thinking skills 2.12

    35 Summary 2.13

    36 The Second Domain: Reading 2.2

    36 The Definition of Reading 2.2.1

  • IX

    36 Reasons of Reading 2.2.2

    37 Selecting Reading Materials 2.2.3

    37 The Importance of Reading 2.2.4

    38 The Purpose of Reading 2.2.5

    40 Types of Texts for Reading Instruction 2.2.6

    41 Types of Reading 2.2.7

    43 Ways of Reading Texts 2.2.8

    47 Stages of Reading Process 2.2.9

    48 Active Reading Strategies 2.2.10

    50 SQ3R & SQ4R 2.2.11

    51 The Third Domain: Q.A.R Question-Answer Relationship Strategy 2.3

    51 Q.A.R Question-Answer Relationship Strategy 2.3.1

    52 Defining the Strategy 2.3.2

    52 Purpose of Question-Answer Relationship (Q AR) Strategy 2.3.3

    53 When to Use the Strategy 2.3.4

    53 The Way to Use the Strategy 2.3.5

    56 Examples of QAR 2.3.6

    59 Promoting and Assessing Reading Skills 2.3.7

    61 Procedures of Applying QAR 2.3.8

    63 QAR and Standalized Testing 2.3.9

    63 Generating material for Literature Circles and Book Groups 2.3.10

    64 Setting Up a QAR Lesson 2.3.11

    65 Summary 2-3-12

    65 The Fourth Domain: an attitudes 2.4

    65 The Definition of Attitudes 2.4.1

    67 Formation of Attitudes 2.4.2

    67 Changing Attitudes 2.4.3

    67 Reading Attitude 2.4.4

    69 The Nature of Attitudes & Origins of Attitudes 2.4.5

    69 Structure of Attitudes 2.4.6

    69 The Function of Attitudes 2.4.7

    70 Methods for Capturing Attitudes 2.4.8

  • X

    71 Attitudes and Behaviours Key Theoretical Issues 2.4.9

    73 Summary 2.4.10

    Chapter II

    Part 2: Previous Studies

    74 The First Domain :Studies Addressing the Subject of Higher Order Thinking



    88 General Commentary on the First Domain 2.6

    89 The Second Domain: Studies Addressing the Subject Question- Answer

    Relationships (QAR) Strategy.


    96 General Commentary on the Second Domain 2.8

    97 Commentary on the Previous Studies in All Domains 2.9