The Islamic university of Gaza Deanery of Postgraduate Studies Faculty of Education Curriculum & English Teaching Methods Department
The Impact of Using Question Answer Relationships
Strategy on Enhancing Sixth Graders Higher Order
Thinking Skills in Reading and Their Attitudes
Rania Deeb Abd al-Rahman al-Kafarna
Supervised by Prof. Awad Sulaiman Kishta
A Thesis Submitted to the Curriculum & English Teaching Methods Department-
Faculty of Education - in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Master Degree in Education
In the Name of Allah the Most Merciful the most Gracious
(Quran, Al-Qalam, verse 1)
I would like to dedicate my work:
To Allah, who is the source of wisdom, patience, and infinite love.
To our prophet Mohammed, peace be upon him.
To my beloved country, Palestine.
To the soul of my father.
To my mother, who has scarified everything in her life for us.
To my husband, who tolerated a lot to let me continue my higher studies
To my beloved sons and daughters, who endured a lot to let me continue.
To all my brothers and sisters, who have been supporting and encouraging me.
To my sincere friends.
To my university, The Islamic University of Gaza.
To the great martyrs and prisoners, the symbol of sacrifice.
To all who lightened my way towards success.
To all knowledge seekers.
My deep thanks and gratitude are due to Allah, the Almighty, Who granted me knowledge and bestowed His everlasting mercies and bounties upon me during this long journey. Without His support and guidance, this work would not have been possible. I would like to thank my supervisor, Prof. Awad Kishta for his support, advice and encouragement throughout this study. My special thanks and gratitude are paid to Misses Maha Barzaq and Dr. Mohammed Atya Abedul Raheem , for their support, advice and encouragement. I am also thankful to the principal, teachers and students of Beit Hanoun Elem Coed "A" school where the study was carried out . Special thanks and strong appreciation are due to my colleagues My deep thanks and appreciation are extended to my beloved family for their patience and consistent support during this period. Finally, I reiterate my cordial acknowledgement and high appreciation to those who helped me in this study
The Impact of Using Question Answer Relationships Strategy on Enhancing
sixth Graders Higher Order Thinking Skills in Reading and Their Attitudes
The study aimed to investigate the impact of using Question Answer Relationships strategy on enhancing sixth graders' Higher Order Thinking Skills in
Reading and their attitude toward Reading. The target skills were analysis, synthesis,
and evaluation .For answering the questions of the study, the researcher adopted the
experimental design . The sample of the study consisted of (77)students distributed
into two groups. One of the groups represented the experimental group of (38)
students; and the other represented the control one of (39) students. The groups were
randomly chosen from UNRWA Beit Hanoun Elem Coed "A" School in Gaza Strip.
The Question Answer Relationships strategy was used in teaching the experimental
group while the traditional method was used with the control one in the second term
of the school year (2013-2014). For collecting the data the researcher constructed
three tools (The Higher Order Thinking Skills test of three skills with (28)items was
designed and validated to be used as a pre and post test and a scale with (30)items to
measure the students attitudes toward reading in the English language for the sixth
graders was used .In addition, the researcher use an observation card as a supportive
tool to measure the experimental group development in acquiring Higher Order
The data of the study were analyzed using T-test independent sample, which was used
to determine significant differences between the groups . Effect size technique was
used to measure the effect size of the Question Answer Relationships strategy on the
experimental group in each scope of the higher order thinking test.
The results indicated that there were statistically significant differences between both
groups in favor the experimental one. The effect size technique indicated a large
effect of the Question Answer Relationships strategy on improving synthesis, and
evaluation skills while it had a medium effect on improving analysis skills for the
experimental group. The results of the observation card showed a large effect on the
students performance in all HOTS domains through using Question Answer
Relationships strategy. The attitude scale indicated that there were no statistically
significant differences between the experimental and the control group's attitude
toward reading in post application. .
The study recommended to use the QAR strategy in teaching English language to
improve students' higher order thinking and reading comprehension . It was also
suggested to conducted further research investigate the effectiveness of QAR
strategy on developing the students' HOTS in other school subjects.
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Table of content
1 Introduction 1.1
5 Statement of the Problem 1.2
6 Research Questions 1.3
6 Research Hypotheses 1.4
7 Purposes of the Study 1.5
7 Significance of the Study 1.6
8 Limitations of the Study 1.7
9 Variables of the Study 1.8
9 Definition of Operational Terms 1.9
10 Summary 1.10
Part 1 : Theoretical Framework
12 The First Domain: Higher Order Thinking Skills 2
12 Theories Related to Learning Higher Order Thinking Skills 2.1
18 Definition of Higher Order Thinking Skills 2.2
19 Types of Thinking 2.3
22 The Possibility of Teaching Thinking 2.4
22 The importance of Teaching Higher Order Thinking Skills 2.5
23 Developing Thinking Skills in Taught Young Learners 2.6
24 Combination of Thinking Skills 2.7
24 Developing Higher level Thinking 2.8
26 Teaching Skills Through Real World Context 2.9
28 Practical Steps for Implementing Higher Order Thinking Questioning 2.10
29 Teaching Strategies 2.11
35 Families and Out of School Educators Can Encourage Higher Order Thinking skills 2.12
35 Summary 2.13
36 The Second Domain: Reading 2.2
36 The Definition of Reading 2.2.1
36 Reasons of Reading 2.2.2
37 Selecting Reading Materials 2.2.3
37 The Importance of Reading 2.2.4
38 The Purpose of Reading 2.2.5
40 Types of Texts for Reading Instruction 2.2.6
41 Types of Reading 2.2.7
43 Ways of Reading Texts 2.2.8
47 Stages of Reading Process 2.2.9
48 Active Reading Strategies 2.2.10
50 SQ3R & SQ4R 2.2.11
51 The Third Domain: Q.A.R Question-Answer Relationship Strategy 2.3
51 Q.A.R Question-Answer Relationship Strategy 2.3.1
52 Defining the Strategy 2.3.2
52 Purpose of Question-Answer Relationship (Q AR) Strategy 2.3.3
53 When to Use the Strategy 2.3.4
53 The Way to Use the Strategy 2.3.5
56 Examples of QAR 2.3.6
59 Promoting and Assessing Reading Skills 2.3.7
61 Procedures of Applying QAR 2.3.8
63 QAR and Standalized Testing 2.3.9
63 Generating material for Literature Circles and Book Groups 2.3.10
64 Setting Up a QAR Lesson 2.3.11
65 Summary 2-3-12
65 The Fourth Domain: an attitudes 2.4
65 The Definition of Attitudes 2.4.1
67 Formation of Attitudes 2.4.2
67 Changing Attitudes 2.4.3
67 Reading Attitude 2.4.4
69 The Nature of Attitudes & Origins of Attitudes 2.4.5
69 Structure of Attitudes 2.4.6
69 The Function of Attitudes 2.4.7
70 Methods for Capturing Attitudes 2.4.8
71 Attitudes and Behaviours Key Theoretical Issues 2.4.9
73 Summary 2.4.10
Part 2: Previous Studies
74 The First Domain :Studies Addressing the Subject of Higher Order Thinking
88 General Commentary on the First Domain 2.6
89 The Second Domain: Studies Addressing the Subject Question- Answer
Relationships (QAR) Strategy.
96 General Commentary on the Second Domain 2.8
97 Commentary on the Previous Studies in All Domains 2.9