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Unit 1 Chapter 24 Industrial America

Unit 1 Chapter 24 Industrial America. The railroads The idea to build a transcontinental existed before the Civil War 1862 President Lincoln signed into

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Text of Unit 1 Chapter 24 Industrial America. The railroads The idea to build a transcontinental existed...

  • Unit 1 Chapter 24 Industrial America

  • The railroads The idea to build a transcontinental existed before the Civil War 1862 President Lincoln signed into law the Pacific Railway Bill creating the UNION Pacific and the Central Pacific railroads. railroads were granted 155,504,994 acres plus 49 million more from western states.

  • The RailroadsPromontory Utah May 10th 1869 Union laid 1086 miles of track and the Central 689 miles of track. Union pacific used mainly Irish immigrants and ex Union Soldiers Central Pacific mostly used cheap Chinese labor.

  • Promontory Utah

  • Other railways

    12 years later the Santa fe trail was replaced with the ATSF Atchison Topeka and Santa Fe line 1884Southern Pacific from Los Angles to New Orleans 1884Northern Pacific Lake Superior to Portland 1883The Great Northern which was privately built1893

  • Railroad Cornelius Vanderbilt Westinghouse Air Brakes Pullman Palace Cars (later a massive labor riot)Telegraphs were added to trains.

  • Pullman Car

  • PullmanPullman, like his upper-class colleagues, distrusted labor unions, so when the Chicago rail worker strike of 1877 ended violently with 12 deaths, he sought a solution to the "labor problem." Pullman hoped to improve the relationship between capital and labor by creating a safe, clean, culturally enriching environment for his workers, who would pay him back with loyalty, honesty, and commitment to hard work. He believed a company town would discourage strikes as it increased workers' efficiency and improved residents' moral character.

  • Pullman House

  • Pullman townThe town of Pullman was a model of financial efficiency. Pullman demanded that the company return an 8-percent profit and the town return a 6-percent profit. He designed the town so that he could profit from waste and excess materials. Scrap wood from the factory fueled the Corliss engine, which in turn powered Pullman's various machines. The engine's exhaust filled Lake Vista and workers used the ice from the lake on Pullman cars. Similarly, the Corliss engine pumped sewage from the town to a nearby Pullman-owned farm, where it was used as fertilizer for produce that would be sold back in the town.

  • Importance of the Railroads tied and bound the country together Oregon and santa fe trails were replaced Indian attacks were down modern towns and major cities massive farm lands cattle ranches flourished American steel companies

  • Importance of the RailroadsOn November 18 1883 the railroads to keep schedule declared 4 official time zonesfor the United States still in use todaya lot of money in railroading and with it came corruption The Wabash case

  • Industrial AmericaIndustrial America If necessity is the mother of invention-- in America Invention was the mother of new industryCarnegie, Rockefeller, Gustavus V Swift , Philip D Armour , Pillsbury , Duke , Christopher Sholes, JW Mcgaffey , Alexander Graham Bell , Edison

  • Andrew Carnegierags to richesBorn in ScotlandSteel became his Empire. By 1900 Carnegie Steel was paying dividends of 40 million. Social Gospel of Wealth controlled all levels of production cut out the middleman and demanded the most up to date technology -1/3 of the worlds steel supply

  • John D RockefellerBorn in New York 1860 looked a Penn oil fields built a refinery instead 1870 with H.M. Flager (Key West railroad and Flager College Fame ) and Samuel Andrews he created Standard Oil 1879 he owned 95% of the nations oil

  • John D Rockefellervertical integration to build his million dollar industry he bought up the pipelines that shipped his oil and squeezed out the competition. He took control of all lines leading to railroads and owned all oil cars on trains he persuaded train companies to only trade with him.

  • J.P. MorganBorn rich and got richer he was the bankers bank bail the U.S. Govt. out of depression held ownership in most of the Eastern Railroads and he consolidated the Steel Industry for Carnegie Americas first Billionaire

  • Labor forms and Unionseconomics all technology is good As with all industrial nations the start up was bad for workers few laws protected themNational Labor Union 1866 Knights of Labor 1869-1881 went national in 1887 Haymarket affair May 3 1886

  • Samuel Gompers and AF of L

    did not like socialism social reform wanted better wages better hours better conditions in the work environment Did not use strikes but used boycott only helped skilled labor did get the 8 hr day Labor Day created in 1894

  • Unit 1Chapter 25 The Cities

  • CitiesBy the end of the 19th century 40% of Americans lived in cities 1860 no city in America had a million people 1890 New York and Chicago and Philadelphia had over a million by 1900 New York grew to 3.5 million

  • Industry huge concentrations of labor to one place Stores- hotels restaurants night clubs renting -apartment and land lords Cities expanded both vertically and Horizontally Otis elevator, sky scrappers, electric trolleys, inner city trains, bridges

  • The Chicago World Fair 1893-94 a City Planners fair result of the fair was city planning commissions popped up in the major cities Fredrick Law Olmstead Central Park , Mall in D.C.

  • Tenements Dumbbell each floor shared a hall bathroom 1900 Manhattan had 42,700 tenements housing 1.6 million people this was an average of 33.58 people per building.

  • Tenementspolitical party machines of the time preyed upon the tenements but not all was bad the Tammany Hill ring in New York (democratic party) housed feed and clothed several tenements in return for votes Honest graft vote and support he party.

  • New Non Western Immigrants 1890 4 out of 5 New Yorkers were foreigners 1600 1880 -western Europeans 1870 Immigrants were pouring in from Eastern Europe -Croats, Slovaks, Greeks, Italians Poles, Serbs, Rumanians, Czechs, Russians

  • New Non Western Immigrantsno concept of democracy or freedom. Business America loved the new cheap labor American labor hated the new immigrants New York, Chicago became havens for Immigrants Little Ireland Little Italy Little Russia Hunkertown (Hungarian)- Bohemian village (Czech) Chinatown Little Greece Little Warsaw (poles) cities in cities

  • Help for Immigrants Jane Addams -Hull House New York Lillian Wards forerunner to the womens political movement.

  • Education Public school system -Americanize the Immigrants 1870 there were 6 million students in public school by 1920 21.6 million teaching went from religious preparation to Math and English and vocational trade concept of the 1 room schoolhouse was gone

  • Tuskegee Al Booker T. Washington George Washington Carver Peanut plant Agricultural schoolAccommodationist WEB Dubois

  • Entertainment With industrialization longer life span more money Americans got leisure timeBuffalo Bills Wild West show Barnum and Baily circusBaseball 1888 Basketball 1891Football 1893

  • Unit 1Chapter 26The Wild West and Agricultural REV

  • Indian wars contact and war with the Indian tribes was inevitable treaties made by Washington under certain administrations were not followed by other administrations Gold Silver and copper drove Americans into the Indian territories against presumed treaties

  • Major gold silver copper Rushes 1849 Sutters mill caused the first great rush to the west 1856/59 Comstock load1858/59 near Pikes Peak Colorado brought 100,000 people1859 Virginia CityLeadville 18701874 Black Hills Sioux country 1891 Cripple Creek

  • Mine Towns brought millions out west camp followers confrontation with the Indians/U.S. Cavalrycrime and vigilante justice towns law and order eventually statehood

  • The trails 1846 The Mormons Trail Nauvoo Illinois to Salt Lake City Utah1841 California Trail Independence MO to Sutters Fort1841 Oregon Trail Independence MO Portland OR1827 Santa Fe Trail Independence MO Santa Fe NM A traders trail commerce went both ways All of which would be followed by railroads within 40 years

  • Plains Indians hunters and gathers incredible horse soldiers primary food supply was the BuffaloUtes Comanche Kiowa Arapaho Cheyenne Sioux Navajo Apache Shoshoni NezPerce

  • WARS Mostly between 1860-901851 the chiefs of the plains tribes met at fort Laramie and signed a peace treaty agreeing to leave the trails alone and to live in certain areas of the plains both braves and settlers ignored this sparking wars

  • WARS1864 the Sand Creek massacre 400 Sioux 1866 a Sioux war party massacred Capt Fettermans command in Montana 1867 Central and Northern Indian tribes peace- lands in Oklahoma and Dakotas1874 Gold seekers and Lt Col Custer ventured into the Dakotas 1876/1877 Sioux war

  • BattlesLT Col Custer and the 7th Cav at the battle of Little Big Horn Sioux defeated returned to reservations in 1877 Sitting bull and some braves escaped into Canada.Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce tribe I Shall Fight no more forever

  • BattlesIn 1879 with the help of Kit Carson the Utes of Colorado were defeated and moved to reservationsIn 1886 the Indian wars for the most part ended with the capture of Geronimo 1890 Dec Chief Big Foot and Wounded Knee Massacre

  • 1887 Dawes Act

    America sought to Americanize the Indians the act presented by Mass. Senator Dawes grant land to individual Indian families up to 160 acres if they lived and farmed it and gave up the Indian ways this took power away from chiefs and gave Indians possession of land

  • Other Indian Acts1906 Burke Act which gave theses Indians immediate citizenship 1924 all Indians were made citizens- politicians needed the vote1980,s Reagan Administration the Dakotas were purchased officially from the Sioux

  • Why the Indians lost Destruction of the Buffalo herds Army always attacked the Indians in the winter Diseases blankets were also given out at the reservation. (dates back to French and Indian War)

  • Big Business Ranchingrail roads allowed both ranchers and farmers to grow and sell more food 1866-88 over 4 million cattle were driven to railroad heads Severe Weather and Barb Wire stopped the cattle drives and created consolidated ranching