United States Movement Of Independence

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Text of United States Movement Of Independence

  • 1. Movements of Independence The British Colonies and Latin America

2. The British ColoniesRevolutionary War

  • It was the destiny of the Americans to be
  • be republicans, not monarchists. It was
  • the destiny of the Americans to be
  • independent, not subject to British
  • dominion. It was the destiny of Americans
  • to be Americans, not English. According
  • to Thomas Payne that was Common Sense.

3. Background before the French Indian War

  • Colonial and British relations before the French Indian War
  • 1. American colonial governments were based on an English model a governor appointed by he king, a council appointed by the governor, and lower house elected by the freemen of the colony.
  • a. conflict with the governor power todisband the lower house.


  • 2. British control on trade to benefit the metropolis(mercantilism ).
  • a. Navigation Act of 1660
  • b. Internal British politics and conflicts led to a lax enforcement of these acts.
  • 3. More social mobility in the colonies 1700 the population 200,000 by 1773 it reached to 1,600,000. By 1775 one-third of white colonists
  • were non English speakers.


  • 3. Conflicts between the French, the British, andthe colonists
  • a. France controlled Canada and the Mississippi Valley and the colonists were crossing into French territory.
  • b. The French and the British haveCaribbean Islands that they desire
  • c. India was another source of conflict after the collapsed of the Mogul Empire.

6. Generalizations - Colonies

  • The colonies have achieved a level of maturity we see working political
  • institutions.
  • Colonies are involved and integrated into
  • an imperial world order: Transatlantic
  • trade, continuing and increasing immigra-
  • tion, well established cities. (Philadelphia)

7. Causes of the War

  • The French control of the areas west of the Appalachian Mountains with their Indian allies who were not only their political allies but their partners in the fur trade.
  • 2.The British and the colonists wanted to expand the control of the lands in North America.

8. Causes of the War

  • 3. The competition between the French and the British to control the fur trade in North America.
  • 4. Imperial competition [ French-Britain] in the Caribbean and in India.

9. Results of the War

  • France lost all of its territories in North America.
  • Britain was saddled with a large debt -
  • expected the colonists to pay a portion of it
  • The colonists no longer needed the British army and navy to protect them from the French and Indians.
  • The new territories will be open for colonization.

10. Different expectations and assessments

  • Colonies
  • 1. the end of high taxes
  • 2. Expansion west of
  • the Appalachian
  • Mountains
  • 3. colonists were proud of their support to the war
  • British
  • 1. imposed new taxes
  • 2. Proclamation 1763
  • [ prohibited westward expansion ]
  • 3. Colonists support and performance during the war was very poor

11. Different Expectations

  • 4. Colonists expect to enjoy a more equal status in the empire
  • 5. Colonists thoughtthat the British army will leave.
  • 4. There was no inclination to give the colonists that term of equality.
  • 5. Gr. Br. believed that the troops need to stay to prevent France from trying to regain the territory and to enforce the Proclamation of 1763.

12. Causes of the War for Independence

  • 1.The need for revenues to pay for the war debt Parliament passed a series of acts that affected the colonies.
  • a. The Sugar Act ( 1764 )
  • b. The Stamp Act ( 1765 )
  • c. The Declaratory Act ( 1766 )
  • d. The Townshend( 1767 )

13. Action-Reaction (Act/Law)(Colonies)

  • Sugar Act 1764 tax on molasses (to make rum). It reduced the tax but enlarge the costume service and set up system of courts for violators without juries.
  • The colonists protested by boicot-
  • ting British imports.
  • ( the British lower the tax even more)

14. Action-Reaction

  • 2. Stamp Act 1765 levy taxes on all colonial newspapers, legal documents, diplomas, pamphlets, property deeds, cards and almanacs.
  • [ In 1766 the stamp act was repealed ]
  • 2.An uproar
  • it directly affected the income of colonial elites.
  • The Sons of Liberty were formed, boicott
  • of British goods (colonial radicalsenforce the boicott).

15. Action-Reaction

  • 3. Declaratory Act this act restated its right to tax the colonies.
  • 4. Townshend Act 1767 collect duties on paper, paint, lead, glass, and tea.
  • [ Act was repealed except for the 3 pence on the tea ]
  • 3.Colonial elites rejected this assertions. No taxes without representation in the Parliament.
  • 4. More boycotts [ trade fell 50% ]

16. Incidents that increased the tension

  • Incident
  • Boston Massacre1770 a crowd began taunting and throwing snowballs at British soldiers they open fire and five colonists were killed.
  • Reaction
  • The colonists form the Committees of
  • Correspondence. (Revolutionary cells). The Boston Massacre became a propaganda disaster for the British.

17. Increased tension

  • 2. The Gaspee Incident
  • a group of colonists boarded a British costumes vessels after it run aground on a sand bar they burn the ship. [ the ships captain was seriously wounded ]
  • The British government increased their concern.


  • 3. The Boston Tea Party (1773) - 150 Bostonians disguised as Indians boarded three ships that were laden with tea. The men threw the tea overboard.
  • [ colonists response -
  • tea monopoly given to the British East India Company ]
  • 3. Britain retaliated with the Coercive Acts.
  • The colonists called them the Intolerable
  • Acts.
  • Quebec Act French - Catholic religion and new boundaries- Quebecnorth of Ohio and west Appalachian Mts

19. The Empire Strikes BackThe Intolerable Acts

  • Close the port of Boston until tea was paid.
  • Suspended self-government in Massachusetts
  • Allowed trials of colonists to be moved to another colony or Britain
  • Allowed soldiers to be quartered in private homes.

20. Towards the Revolution

  • The First Continental Congress
  • a) the delegates shared common values: civic virtue, self-reliance, thrift,
  • simplicity, and a commitment to the public good.
  • b) Declaration of Rights and Grievances
  • c) It denied Parliament the right toimpose taxes and make laws but recognized its authority to regulate trade.
  • 2. Determine to repeal the Coercive Acts


  • 3.The Battle of Lexington and Concord
  • 4. Thomas Paine Common Sense is published in 1776.

22. The Road for Independence

  • 1.The King rejects the Declaration of Rights and Grievances
  • 2. The Second Continental Congress
  • a) The Declaration of Independence
  • July 4, 1776.
  • b) Continental Army General George
  • Washington

23. Strategy & Order of Battle

  • Amer. Strategy
  • To survive until they could get help from Europeanpower (France)
  • Take out British base areas of operations
  • Propaganda campaign against the Br.
  • The British Strategy:
  • A decisive battle to end the revolution
  • Separate strategies for New England, Middle and Southern colonies
  • Fight with their back to the sea [Navy to support land operations


  • US strategy
  • 1. Attack on Quebec [Ethan Allen &Benedict campaign]
  • 2. Western Campaign
  • The British strategy
  • 1.Strategy: Three colonial strategies
  • a) New Eng. separate it from other colonies
  • b) Middle Colonies to take Philadelphia
  • ( Cap. US) & NY
  • c) Southern to divide the colonial society by supporting loyalist among the elites & newimmigrants against old settlers;win the south by using local forces.


  • US Forces
  • a) Continental army, 18,000 men (regular forces)
  • Problems: Army suffered chronic shortages of men, suppli