Varieties of American Nationalism. Chapter 8. Defining an Era. After the War of 1812, two things were on the minds of most Americans Was slavery going to continue to be a part of the national identity and economy? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Varieties of American Nationalism
Varieties of American NationalismChapter 8A Growing EconomyThe Economic Boom after the War of 1812After the War of 1812, two things were on the minds of most Americans
Was slavery going to continue to be a part of the national identity and economy?
Would the new Western states align politically and economically with the North or the South?Defining an EraFollowing the War of 1812, there was a short but significant economic boomthen a quick bust.
The United States made a move in the post war years towards industrialization and a new economy but it lacked the necessary institutions (transportation, standardized banking) to sustain long term growth.Building A National MarketAfter the War of 1812Manufacturing Shipping State Banks issue bank notes of varying worth, creating interstate consumer uncertainty. WHY?A National Bank is needed to stabilize the currency and set a banking standardCongress forms the SECOND BANK OF THE UNITED STATES in 1791The banks size gave it power not any lawsBanking, Currency, ProtectionThe Textile Boom: 1807-1815The POWER LOOM provides for faster cloth production to consume the mass amounts of cotton produced by the plantation system of the South.Industry begins to take root in the North to offset the loss of shipping businessNew Banking system provides for capital investment
The Textile Boom:1807-1815After the War of 1812 American ports were again open to British goods.British merchants flood the U.S. with cheap goods to suppress American Industry and growth.Congress passes Protective Tariffs in 1816 to keep cheap British goods off of American shelves and help American industry
TransportationThe new economy, based on manufacturing and industry, demanded better, faster transportation
Private industry looks for solutions
Should the Federal Government, using Federal tax dollars, build public roads?
TransportationThe NATIONAL ROADa road built between the Potomac River and the Ohio River using funds from the sale of land in Ohio.Solves the transportation problem and the funding problem
TransportationSteam Powered ships bring goods North and South along the Mississippi River (open now because of the Battle of New Orleans) and eventually the Erie Canal, opening up the West to Eastern goods.Steam Ships stimulate the agrarian economy of the South and WestPeople start moving West to farm
TransportationOn the East Coast there is a difficulty shipping goods North and South because of poor roads and rough watersJohn C. Calhoun helps pass bill to build a national N/S roadMadison vetoes it his last day as president because he feels the bill oversteps the powers of congress to make National Improvements
Is this ironicor at least contradictory?
IM bringing sexy back!Expanding WestwardThe Louisiana Territory opens up to settlersIn 1810, 1 out of every 7 white Americans lived West of the Appalachians.
In 1820, 1 out of every 4 white Americans lived West of the Appalachians
Regional political powers is in a state of constant fluxExpanding WestwardReasons for Expansion:Pressure over land, resources, jobs, and capital, due to the growing population in the East18005.3 million Americans18209.6 million Americans
The West becomes more attractive to AmericansWar of 1812 eliminated Native American threatU.S. Government builds forts in the territoriesMidwest is attractive to farmersThe Great MigrationsCotton grows very well in Alabama and Mississippi drawing plantation owners West with prospects of huge profits and cheap land.Spreads the Plantation System and slavery WestGrowth adds 4 new states:The Plantation System in the Southwest
Indiana: 1816Mississippi: 1817Illinois: 1818Alabama: 1819Trade with Mexico opens in 1821 when it gains independence from Spain, bringing traders further West and South.Fur becomes a big business all across the WestWhite fur traders move into the Great Lakes and the Rockies where once only Native American trappers traded.These traders became known as MOUNTAIN MENTrade and Trapping in the Far WestThe Mountain ManThe MOUNTAIN MAN becomes a character of myth and legendMen who live off the land, alone for months at a time, trapping/hunting beaver, moose, bear, buffalo.Romanticizes the WestCreates a level of misunderstanding among most Easterners of what the West really is.
Mr. Flessas Beard GoalThe Era of Good FeelingHigh on BelievingAs the economy grew, the West opened to White expansion, and new states joined the union a general Good Feeling spread throughout the US.
Americans were feeling good about themselvesWHY? Thats what you will answer in your DBQ Chapter 8 Essay Test!The Era of Good FeelingsSince John Adams, Virginians controlled the White House. (1800-1824)JeffersonMadisonMonroeThis became known as the VIRGINIA DYNASTYThe Republican Virginians dominated politics for 25 years.The End of the First Party SystemBy the time James Monroe becomes president, the country is on a roll.Monroe takes the opportunity of a strong economy and peace at home to strengthen Americas image around the world.He took a GOODWILL TOUR across America, for the first time making the President a very public figure. The Easy Presidency of MonroeJames Monroe issues a statement to the world that asserts U.S. Supremacy and warns European powers against any attempts to colonize the Americas
This Doctrine has been adopted by many presidents who believe that America should be the leading force of the world.The Monroe Doctrine
Is this evidence of the Monroe doctrine in the modern era?In Support of the Monroe Doctrine?
The U.S. held West Florida but wanted East Florida from the Spanish.Secretary of State John Quincy Adams as began negotiating with Spanish Minister Luis de Onis.Jackson, in control of the American Army in the South, was ordered by Secretary of War Calhoun to stop raids on American settlers by the Seminole Indians.Jackson used this excuse to invade Florida and take it from the Seminoles and the SpanishAdams took responsibility for the action saying it was Americas right to take the PennisulaIn 1819 Spain ceded the rest of Florida to the U.S. with the Adams-Onis Treaty.Seminole WarsAs the nation grew its demand for capital and markets grew as well.In 1819 banks had loaned out more money than they had, as they started to call in loans, people didnt have the money to pay and the economy went bust.This crisis weakened the idea that America was unstoppable.With the BOOM came a BUSTPanic of 1819Sectionalism and NationalismA Nation United and DividedWhat were the major elements of disagreement in the debate over the admission of Missouri into the Union?Which group opposed Missouri's entering the Union as a slave state? Why?What was the Missouri Compromise? Why did nationalists regard it as a "happy resolution of a danger to the Union"? Why were others less optimistic?Guided QuestionsThe Revival of OppositionThe Federalists RETURN!!!!!Latin AmericaBy 1815 the Spanish Empire is about to fallCant compete with British and French NavyHasnt industrializedNot as lucrative coloniesLatin America is the second largest trade partner of the U.S.If Spain falls and loses control of Latin America, the U.S. benefits1815U.S. Promises to stay out of the uprising in Latin America where people are fighting for independence from SpainInstead it sells ships and supplies to the rebels1822Monroe recognizes La Plata (Argentina), Chile, Peru, and Columbia as independent nations.
Monroe DoctrineFirst established in 1823Mostly the work of John Q. Adams, Monroes Secretary of StateA written promise to Europe and the rest of the world that the United States would protect the Americas from European influenceAdams was afraid France and Spain would join together to retake Latin AmericaThe Monroe Doctrine established American Dominance and fostered strong Nationalist feelings at home.
The Revival of OppositionAfter 1816 the Federalist Party ceased to beAll politics were Republican politics1824 CaucusWilliam H Crawford (Secretary of the Treasure under Monroe) of Georgia was selected as the Republican candidate for PresidentBut J.Q. Adams, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson, received a lot of local support outside the caucusThe Election of 1824 was held resulting in an unclear victor.Electoral Votes of 1824
Andrew Jackson99 VotesJohn Q. Adams84 VotesWilliam H. Crawford41 VotesHenry Clay37 VotesThe Corrupt Bargain of 1824Because of the failure of the Electoral College to pick a clear winner, the choice went to the House of RepresentativesClay, clearly not going to win, gave his support to Adams because Jackson was a rival of Clays in the South and because Adams supported Clays American System (more on that later)Adams wins with Clays support, who names him Secretary of StateJacksonians charge Clay and Adams with conspiring a Corrupt BargainThe Second President AdamsAdams takes office, not a popular manTries to progress a Nationalist Policy but is blocked by angry states rights Jacksonians in CongressAdams supports the American SystemRaise protective tarrifsStrengthen the national bankFinance internal improvementsAdams supported tariffs on imported goods in 1828 that angered suppliers in the north and manufacturers in the north John Quincy AdamsAdams was a diplomat, intellectual, and worldly.He spoke His goal as president was American expansion
Jackson TriumphantBy the election of 1828 Adams had few supporters leftThe Republicans were split between the federalist National Republicans (Adams) and the states rights dominant Democratic-Republicans (Jackson)Jackson stood against Economic AristocracyThe election was filled with nasty politicsElection of Jackson is heralded as the Age of the Common Man
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