World Geography 3202. THE NATURE OF RESOURCES Chapter 8 (pp.135-140)

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<p>World Geography 3202</p> <p>World Geography 3202The nature of resourcesChapter 8 (pp.135-140)Soil CharacteristicsThere are several characteristics of soil that affect its value for farming and growing vegetation. </p> <p>Organic ContentSoil fertility is determined as a ratio of the organic content (residues of plants and animals) versus the content of ground bed rock. </p> <p>Mineral content varies with precipitation because heavy rains tend to leech soils removing minerals from the root region of soil (calcium, magnesium, potassium, nitrogen). </p> <p>Soil Texturerefers to the mixture of fine particles (sand), very fine particles (silt) and extra fine particles (clay). The best texture for agriculture is an even mixture of each. </p> <p>4Soil ProfileThere are fairly distinct layers within soil.Top Layer: Dark color &amp; rich in humus. The thickness and quality of the top humus layer is very important for plant life.</p> <p>2nd Layer: Mineral layer deposited from above (calcium, magnesium, potassium, nitrogen)3rd Layer: Weathered bed rock 4th Layer: Bed rock </p> <p>A Soil Profile</p> <p>Types of SoilPodzolsoils which predominate the boreal forest and tend to be somewhat acidic Chernozemsoils which tend to be the best for agriculture. They are found in grasslands which are semi-arid resulting in less leeching and a mineral rich soil. </p> <p>Latosolsoils which are very infertile due to the high amount of leeching. They are found in tropical rain forests with high amounts of rain which result in leeched mineral-poor soil. </p> <p>8Environmental Factors &amp; SoilTemperatureaffects the development of humus. Too cold and the decay of organic matter is slowed considerably. Precipitationaffects the mineral content of soil.too much rain and minerals are leeched down beyond the reach of plant roots. The process of leeching is also called eluviation</p> <p>Soil TextureSoil texture refers to the size of particles in the soil.stones are approximately baseball-sized; gravel is small stones; sand is fine particles; silt is very fine particles; clay is extremely fine particles. </p> <p>Soil is predominantly composed of sand, silt and clay. Its texture is determined by the mixture of these three.The best agricultural soils are an even mixture of all three!The best mixture of all three (sand, silt and clay) is called Loam.</p> <p>13ConsiderWhat makes the best soil?40% sand, 20% clay and 60% silt OR30% sand, 60% clay, or 10% silt</p> <p>The answer is A! Remember loamy soil is the best!!</p> <p>Threats to SoilPoor soil management: can lead to loss of fertile soil. While the earth's surface is covered in soil the amount of fertile soil valuable for agriculture is limited and is dwindling yearly.Expanding deserts: grasslands are semi-arid regions with extremely fertile soil. If proper soil management is not practiced these are among the most fragile places. Globally desertification of grasslands adjacent to deserts has been a problem.</p> <p>Erosion: agricultural lands on slopes/hills or mountains are very susceptible to water erosion.Urban expansion: has also been a factor in the loss of agricultural land. People have traditionally settled in rich farmland and increasing urbanization is covering up good farmland.Overgrazing, flooding and deforestation: have led to the degradation of arable land.16Read pp. 135-142 (Earths Soil Resource)</p>

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