Chemistry k to 12 workbook

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Text of Chemistry k to 12 workbook

  • 1.Study Guide for Content Mastery Student Edition

2. A Glencoe ProgramHands-On Learning: Laboratory Manual, SE/TE Forensics Laboratory Manual, SE/TE CBL Laboratory Manual, SE/TE Small-Scale Laboratory Manual, SE/TE ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets Review/Reinforcement: Study Guide for Content Mastery, SE/TE Solving Problems: A Chemistry Handbook Reviewing Chemistry Guided Reading Audio Program Applications and Enrichment: Challenge Problems Supplemental ProblemsTeacher Resources: Lesson Plans Block Scheduling Lesson Plans Spanish Resources Section Focus Transparencies and Masters Math Skills Transparencies and Masters Teaching Transparencies and Masters Solutions Manual Technology: Chemistry Interactive CD-ROM Vocabulary PuzzleMaker Software, Windows/MacIntosh Glencoe Science Web site: science.glencoe.comAssessment: Chapter Assessment MindJogger Videoquizzes (VHS/DVD) Computer Test Bank, Windows/MacIntoshCopyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with the Chemistry: Matter and Change program. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240-4027 ISBN 0-07-824522-2 Printed in the United States of America. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 045 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 3. STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERYContents To the Student . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv Study Skills.........................................vChapter 1Introduction to Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Chapter 2Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Chapter 3MatterProperties and Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Chapter 4The Structure of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Chapter 5Electrons in Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Chapter 6The Periodic Table and Periodic Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Chapter 7The Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Chapter 8Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43Chapter 9Covalent Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Chapter 10 Chemical Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Chapter 11 The Mole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Chapter 12 Stoichiometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Chapter 13 States of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Chapter 14 Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Chapter 15 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Chapter 16 Energy and Chemical Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Chapter 17 Reaction Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Chapter 18 Chemical Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Chapter 19 Acids and Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Chapter 20 Redox Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Chapter 21 Electrochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Chapter 22 Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Chapter 23 Substituted Hydrocarbons and Their Reactions . . . . . . . . 133 Chapter 24 The Chemistry of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Chapter 25 Nuclear Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Chapter 26 Chemistry in the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151Study Guide for Content MasteryChemistry: Matter and Changeiii 4. To the Student This Study Guide for Content Mastery for Chemistry: Matter and Change will help you learn more easily from your textbook. Each textbook chapter has six study guide pages of questions and exercises for you to complete as you read the text. The study guide pages are divided into sections that match those in your text. You will find that the directions in the Study Guide for Content Mastery are simply stated and easy to follow. Sometimes you will be asked to answer questions. Other times, you will be asked to interpret a diagram or complete a table. By completing the study guide, you will gain a better understanding of the concepts presented in the text. These sheets also will prove helpful when studying for a test. Before you begin your work, read the Study Skills section at the front of this booklet. The Study Skills section will help you improve your reading skills. improve your vocabulary skills. learn from visuals. make and understand idea maps.Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.These skills will help ensure your success in studying chemistry and any other discipline.CREDITS Art Credits Navta Associates: ix, 25, 35, 39, 71, 80, 85, 97, 114, 135; Glencoe: x, xi, 4, 10, 12, 24, 34, 53, 74, 75, 78, 98, 121, 125, 132, 154, 155, 156; MacArt Design: 14, 48, 63, 92, 139, 143, 149ivChemistry: Matter and ChangeStudy Guide for Content Mastery 5. STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERYStudy Skills A. Improve Your Reading Skills Active readers are good readers.Active readers get ready before they read. use skills that help them when they read. review to remember after they read. Heres what you can do to become an active reader!Before You Read Get Ready to Read Find a quiet time and place to readlibrary, study hall, home. Dont read when youre tired. Dont read when youre hungry.Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Wait until you have finished a section before you take a break.Scan Quickly scan the material so you will know what it is about. Look at pictures and read the captions, titles, headings, and words in bold print.Write Write notes about what you see when you scan. Write questions about what you see. Write topics you want to find out about when you read. Write a preview outline from the section topics.As You Read Find the main idea of each section or paragraphthis is usually in the first sentence. Study the pictures, maps, graphs, and tables, and think about the information in them. Write down the main ideas and other notes about what you read. After you read the whole section, reread the parts you didnt understand.Study Guide for Content MasteryChemistry: Matter and Changev 6. STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERYStudy Skills After You Read Review your outline or the notes you wrote while you were reading. If you still have questions, ask a classmate or your teacher for help. Write important facts or ideas on flash cards. Review your flash cards to help you remember what youve read.B. Improve Your Vocabulary Skills Active readers learn the meanings of new words.Active readers recognize clues to help find the meaning. look for familiar words and word parts in new words. use a dictionary often. Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. practice new words so they can remember new meanings.Heres how you can improve your vocabulary!When You See a New Word Scan Read the sentence and look for clues about the meaning of the word. These are called context clues. Look for pictures or visuals that contain the word. In the following table, you can find different kinds of context clues that you can use to help you figure out the meanings of new words.viChemistry: Matter and ChangeStudy Guide for Content Mastery 7. STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERYStudy Skills Search for Context Clues The runner started the race with energy and excitement, but as she crossed the finish line, the fatigue and strain showed on her face.This sentence contrasts the word fatigue with energy and compares it to strain. This tells you that someone who is fatigued is strained and has no energy.Definition and descriptionElena is a chemist, a scientist who studies matter and the changes that it undergoes.The sentence describes a chemist as someone who studies matter and the changes that it undergoes.SynonymsCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Comparison and contrastCarl is very dependable. His teachers and his parents know that he is reliable and can be trusted.The word dependable is described by the synonyms reliable and trusted.Tone and settingAn air of jubilation surrounded the members of the science team as they received their medals for first place in the national competition.The setting of the sentence and the action describe a situation that is positive and full of celebration.A series of cluesThe elements helium, oxygen, and nitrogen are all nonmetals.The elements that are mentioned are all gases. This tells you something about the word nonmetals.Cause and effectThe student group was known for its boisterous meetings, so the principal asked extra teachers to monitor the meeting and keep order.Boisterous describes the meetings and tells you that something needs extra supervision.Study Guide for Content MasteryChemistry: Matter and Changevii 8. STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERYStudy Skills Break It Down Find the root word. Write it and ask questions about its meaning. Find the affixthe part in front of or after the root word. Write it down and use a dictionary to look up its meaning.In this table, you can see how to break words into their roots and affixes. RootAffix and