Poetry |1st year

  • View
    2.418

  • Download
    4

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

مجموعة دروس -مقدمة في الشعر- للفرقة الأولى في قسم اللغة الإنجليزية و آدابها

Text of Poetry |1st year

  • 1. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First YearPoems * London, 1802by Wi"iam Wordsworth * Sonnet LIVTopics by Edmund Spenser * Poetry Through the Ages * Sonnet XXIXGeneral Introductionby Wi"iam Shakespeare * Types of Poetry * Dyingsonnets, odes, lyric, narrative, ba"ad, #ee verse by Emily Dickinson * Stanza* How Do I Love Thee Sonnet 43couplet, triple, quatrain, sestet, and octave by Elizabeth Barrett Browning * Musical Devices * Excerpt "om Macbetha"iteration, assonance, consonance, rhyme, onomatopoeia,by Wi"iam Shakespearerhythm, rhyme scheme, meter* The Mermaid * Sensuous Imagery by Author Unknownauditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, organic, kinesthetic* Acquainted with the Night * Figurative Languageby Robert Frostdenotation and connotation, simile, metaphor,* The Road Not Takenpersonication, apostrophe, metonymy, symbol, a"egory,by Robert Frostparadox, overstatement, understatement, irony * Traveling Through the Darkby Wi"iam Staord * Dreamsby Langston Hughes * The Negro Speaks Riversby Langston HughesSarabdulaziz 2011

2. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year (Poetry Through the Ages- 1st Week)Classical PeriodA. Greek PoetryThe earliest known western poetry consists of two acknowledged Greek masterpiece, The iliad and theodyssey. Both of these works are attributed to the legendary Homer.The Iliad and The Odyssey are epics, that is they are long narrative poems about the deeds of heros.The Greek used poetry not only to celebrate their heros but to instruct, to sing, to love and to enrichtheatre through plays by such revered writers as Sphodes (c. 497-405 b.c)B. Roman PoetryFrom its beginning, Latin or Roman poetry was heavily inuenced by the Greeks.The earliest Latin poetry was translation of Odyssey. Example. Lucretius who is in the rst centuryB.C wrote on the nature of things, which has been called the wests greatest philosophical poem, andVirgil who among other works wrote the celebrated natural epic, The Aeneid.Medieval PeriodThe epic masterpiece of the age included the old English poem beowulf.The great names among medieval poets included. Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), and Geoffrey Chaucer(c. 1340-1400).The Renaissance In England:The renaissance period started around (1509) .The English renaissance extended until the restoration in (1660).Metaphysical PoetsThe early 17th century saw the emergence of this group of poets who wrote in witty, complicated style.The most famous of the metaphysical is probably John Donne, others include Geurge Haerbert, HenryVoghahThe Romantic MovementRomanticism started in late 18th century western europe, the birth of Romanticism is often dated tothe publication in 1798 of Wordsworth Coleridges Lyrical Ballads.Romantic poets include William Bloke, Lord born, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor, Coleridge,John Keats and Percy Shelley.* It stressed strong emotion, imagination, freedom mithin or even from classical notions of form on art, and the rejection of established social conventions.* It stressed the important of nature in language and celebrated the achieveents of those perceived as heroic individuals.Sarabdulaziz 2011 3. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First YearVictorian PoetryThe Victorian period literary describes the events in the age of queen Victoria reign of (1837-1901)* The Victorian area was period of great political, social economic change.* The age provided a signication development of poetic indeeds such as the increased use the sonnet as poetic form which was inuence later modern poets.* The major Victorian poets were Alfred, Tord Tynnson, Robert Browning, Elizabeth Barrett Matthew Arnold and Gerard Hopkins. Victorian Poetry was an important period in the history of poetry providing the link between the Romantic Movement and the modern.Modern PoetryThe age of the modern poetry began in the early 20th century, at a time when poetry that had oncepredominately originated in England was being found in places such as Scotland, US, France.* The British poetry movement of past centuries had begun to fact from view* Examples of modern poets, Ezra Pound (1885-1972), Jane Joyce (1882-1941) and Joseph Conrad (1857-1924).Sarabdulaziz 2011 4. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year(Types of Poetry- 2nd & 3rd & 4th Weeks)A: sonnets> basic sonnet types of sonnets:1- Italian2- Spenserian3- EnglishThe Italian (or pavarchan) sonnet. Is divided into two sections by two dierent groups ofrhyming sounds. The rst 8 lines are called Octave and it rhymes:AbbaabbaThe remaining 6 lines is called the Sestet and can have either two or three rhyming soundsor ranged in variety of wayscd cd cd - cddcdc - cdecde - cdeced - cdcedcSonnet = 14. Octave= 8. Sestet= 6.Volta or turn 12= 4 lines = 3 groups (3 pattern)8= quatrain 2= coupleThe sestet never end with a couple cdde-reelThe change of the idea or subject matter occurs at the beginning of lintel Italian sonnetand its called the Volta or turn.The turn is an essential element of the sonnet from its at the Volta that the second idea isintroduced e.g Wordsworth Sonnet.The Spenserian sonnet, invented by Edmund Spenser as an out growth of the stanzapattern he used in it faerie queen (ababb cbcc) has the pattern.Ababb cbccd cdee* it consists of 3 quatrains (4 - line groups)* the rst 12 lines from a single unit with a separated nal couplet* the three quatrains then develop three distinct but closely related idea. With a dierentidea core commentary In the coupletThe actual turn occurs where the rhyme pattern changes with the coupletSarabdulaziz 2011 5. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First YearSonnet liv. 14 linesAB Quatrain (1)ABBC Quatrain (2)BCDE Quatrain (3)DEF Couplet~> change idea when the couplet Volta or turn when coupletFSarabdulaziz 2011 6. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First YearB: OdesOdes are large poems which are serious in nature. John Keatss "Ode on a Grecian Urn"and "Ode to A Nightingale" are probably the most famous examples of this type of poems.C: Lyric PoetryLyric poetry consists of poem, such as a sonnet are an ode. That expresses the thought andthe feeling of the poet.The lyrics poet addresses the reader directly, portraring his or her own feeling, state ofmind, or perception. Ex, 12 Dying by Emily Dickinson.D: Narrative PoetryIs founded in dierent types of poetry such as Ballads and Epics. All of these Ex. Aredierent kinds of narrative poems some of which are the length of a book such as the Iliadand Paradise last.E: refrain poetryThe word "refrain" derives the old French word refrained meaning to repeat refrain poetryterms is a phrase, line, or group of lines that is repeated throughout a poem. Usually aftereach stanza. Ex, The Mermaid.F: Ballad poemsAre poems that tell a story similar to folktale or legend and often has a repeated refrain.Ex, The Mermaid.G: free verse is form of poetry that refrains from mater patterns, rhyme, or any othermusical pattern.H: blank verse is a poetry that is written in unrhymed iambic pentameter.Ex. Iambic (U/) 5 pentameter "number of fee" :shall I compare thee to a summers day?STANZA in poetry, a unit with a large poem.Types of stanza: 2 couple, 3 triple, 4 quatrain, 6 sestet, 8 octave.William Shakespeare wrote most of his plays in blank verse. Sarabdulaziz 2011 7. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year(Musical Devices- 5th & 6th Weeks)1. Alliteration is a repetition of the some or similar sounds at the beginning of words. Ex.Acquainted with the Night by Robert Frost.2. Assonance is the repetition of vowels sounds "mad as a hater"Assonance doesnt occur simply by having the same vowels spelling .e.g lost, most.3. Consonance is the repetition of nal consonant sounds as in rst, last. Odds, end.4. Rhyme is the repetition of the accented vowel sound and all succeeding sounds, as inold, cold. Make, wake. Feign, rain.A end rhyme, comes at the end of lines.B internal rhyme, places at least one of the rhymed words within the lines, as in: dividing,gliding, sliding.C masculine rhyme, one syllable (support + retort)D feminine, two syllable (turtle + fertile)5. Onomatopoeia is the formation or use words which imitate sounds, like whispering,clang, popcorn.The turn is generally expanded to refer to any word whose sound is suggestive of itsmeaning.6. Rhythm, is a musical quality produced by the repetition of stressed and unstressedsyllables. "heartbeat"7. Rhyme Scheme, is a regular pattern of rhyme on that is consistent throughout theextent. (write a letter next to each sound).8. Meter, in poetry meter is recurring pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in lines ofset length.Sarabdulaziz 2011 8. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First YearThere are 5 types of feet:Example. Elizabeth browning sonnet 43 Iamb (iampic) unstressed+stressed2 syllables Trochee(trochaic) stressed+unstressed2 syllables Spodee (spodaic)stressed+stressed2 syllables Anapest(anapestic)unstressed+unstressed+stressed 3 syllables Dactly (dactlyic) stressed+unstressed+unstressed 3 syllablesThe types of meter and the line length: Monometer1 Foot Dimeter2 Feet Trimeter 3 Feet Tetrameter 4 Feet Pentameter 5 Feet Hexameter6 Feet Heptameter 7 Feet Octameter8 FeetSarabdulaziz 2011 9. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year(Sensuous Imagery- 8th Week)An image is language that addresses the senses (sensuous imagery)Types:1. Visual, represent a sight2. Auditory, represent a sound3. Olfactory, represent smell4. Gustatory, represent taste5. Tactile, represent touch6. Organic, internal sensation such as hunger, thirst, fati