- 1. Dream Fulfilled?King, the Civil Rights Movement, and Obamas America Dedrick Muhammad Senior Organizer and Research Associate Institute for Policy Studies
2. Truth and Lies
- A lie told a million times will be considered the truth, but the truth told one time can shatter a million lies.
3. Do you know about Kwame Ture? How about Stokely Carmichael? 4. Kwame Ture Another Face of the Civil Rights Movement Kwame Ture and Stokely Carmichael are the same person.
- Kwame Turewas bornStokely CarmichaelinTrinidad to working class parents who emigrated to New York City when he was toddler.
- He became a leading student activist atHoward University,fighting racism in the early 1960s.
5. Stokely Carmichael and SNCC
- SNCC was one of the most important organizations fighting racism in the 1960s.
- In 1964Stokely Carmichaelbecame chair of theStudent Non-violent Coordinating Committee . SNCC was founded out of a conference organized byElla Bakerin North Carolina.Ella Baker was a Civil Rights organizer and helped create one of the leading student organizations of the 20th century.
- Many leaders would emerge from SNCC including: Marion Barry, Diane Nash, John Lewis, Bernice Reagon, Julian Bond, Eleanor Holmes Norton, Bob Moses, James Forman, and H. Rap Brown (aka Jamil Al-Amin).
Ella Baker 6. The Big 6 Civil Rights Organizations
- The Student Non-violent Coordinating Committeewas the student group of the big 6 national civil rights organizations.
- NAACP The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People incorporated in 1911.Its founding executive board was all white except for the sole African American, WEB Dubois.
- SCLCThe Southern Christian Leadership Conference was founded and led by Dr. King.
- COREThe Congress of Racial Equality was created in 1941 inspired by the nonviolent strategies of Gandhi.
- SNCC The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee founded in 1960 .
The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car PortersThe Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was a major Black union founded in 1925 whose leader A Phillip Randolph originally had the idea of the March on Washington.It took almost twenty years for the march to become a reality. The Urban LeagueThe Urban League originated in New York City to deal with the great migration of African Americans from rural areas to urban areas. 7. The Black Radicalism that Came from the Civil Rights Movement
- While in SNCC Stokely Carmichael helped organize a non-racist party in Lowndes County, Alabama as part of the voting rights work.
The symbol of the racist Alabama Democratic party was a white rooster whose motto was White Supremacy / For the Right. To help the African American population distinguish the new non-racist democratic party in Lowndes County from the racist Alabama Democratic Party they used the Black Panther symbol. 8. The Civil Rights Birth of the Black Panther Party
- The symbol of the alternative to the racist democratic party was later used by young radicals in California to be the symbol of their Black Panther Party for Self-Defense.
9. The Civil Rights Birth of Black Power
- Stokely Carmichaelpopularized the phrase Black power in the last great civil rights march of the 1960s.
- The phrase Black Power caused much controversy, so Stokely Carmichael along with Charles Hamilton wrote the bookBlack Power: The Politics of Liberation .This book popularized the phrase institutional racism.
- Institutional racism- the embeddedness of racially discriminatory practices in the institutions, laws, and agreed upon values and practices of a society.
The last great Civil Rights march in 1965 continued the March Against Fear that was originally attempted by one man James Meredith who was shot in his attempt to march through the South. 10. Stokely Carmichael fromCivil Rights to Black Power
- Stokely Carmichael would eventually be given the title Honorary Prime Minister of the Black Panther Party by the young radicals of the urban based Black Panther Party for self defense.
11. From the Caribbean to the United States to Africa
- After watching Black leaders killed throughout the 1960 s, Stokely Carmichael moved to the continent of Africa where he married the famed South African singer and anti-apartheid activist Miriam Makeba.
12. The Emergence of Kwame Ture
- Stokely Carmichael, while living on the continent of Africa would change his name to Kwame Ture in honor of his mentors Kwame Nkrumah and Ahmed Seko Ture the first post-colonial presidents of their respective countries Ghana and Guinea.
Shirley Duboisan activist and member of the American Communist Party who married WEB Dubois and emigrated to Ghana with WEB Dubois in 1961. Kwame TureKwame Nkrumah 13. The Black Liberation Struggle Continues
- For the rest of Kwame Ture s life he would visit the US to lecture and organize, assisting with the Million Man March, and becoming the most public figure of the All African Peoples Revolutionary Party.
14. What does all of this have to do with Dr. King?
- Stokely Carmichael/ Kwame Ture was a respected ally of Dr. King who was one of the first people called by Dr. King to share the news that King would take a public stand against the Vietnam War.
There were many different faces and aspects of the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, some faces such as Dr. King are remembered more than others and some aspects of the civil rights movement are remembered more than others. 15. Americas Dream of King
- When all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last !"
Dr. King is remembered for bringing America together and to a large extent having his dream realized. 16. Kings Dream
- Kings I have a dream speech comes from the 1963 March on Washington forFreedom and Jobs. King was clear that Blacks not only needed freedom from Southern Segregation but also economic empowerment in terms of employment.
- The entire I have a dream refrain of Dr. Kings speech was not part of his written text. It was an inspired ad lib he had used in previous speeches.
- Less remembered words from Kings most famous speech: Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginningWe cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote.
- King saw his dream turn into a nightmare.So often in these past two years I have had to watch my dreams transformed into a nightmare.I have felt my dreams falter as I have traveled through the rat-infested slums of our big city ghettos and watched our jobless and hopeless poor sweltering in an air-tight cage of poverty in the midst of an affluent society.
17. The Reality of Dr. King
- First Phase :1955-1965 King focused on Southern institutional racism
- Second Phase :1965 on King focused on national socio-economic inequality
There were two phases of Dr. Kings lifes work. As King stated, The first phase had been a struggle to treat the Negro with a degree of decency, not of equality When Negroes looked for the second phase, the realization of equality, they found that many of their white allies had quietly disappeared. 18. Phase 2 of Dr. Kings Work:Structural Inequality
- By 1965, the Voting Rights Act was passed
- Two days later, August 11th, the Watts Rebellion / Riot occurs
- January 1966: King moves to Chicago to focus on urban economic issues
- In 1967 there were rebellions/ riots throughout the country. King launched the Poor Peoples Campaign.
The looting in Watts was a form of social protest very common through the ages as a dramatic and destructive gesture of the poor toward symbols of their need.- Dr. King Dr. King moved himself and his family into a housing project on the West side of Chicago to express solidarity with ghettoized African Americans in the North.In Chicago King received some of the most hateful responses to his demonstrations to end the defacto segregation in Northern cities. The conditions for African Americans in urban areas that no longer had segregation laws, but still were segregated and disenfranchised, were thrust to center stage not by nonviolent action but by rebellions/riots like Watts, which highlighted the great dissatisfaction of urban Blacks outside of the South. 19. Dr. King the Unpopular
- As King critiqued the violence of urban rebellions he found it increasingly difficult to not critique the violence of America in its war in Vietnam.
- This led to King being critiqued by civil rights groups like the NAACP, Urban League, & his own board of the SCLC.
- Newsweek Magazine - King seemed to have abandoned his dream in favor of a nation in which a race-conscious minority dictated foreign policy.
- US News & World Report -Kingan ingrate unappreciative of the rights won for him by other Americans willing to nourish the Tree of Liberty with their blood.