Cellular respiration updated

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  1. 1. Cellular Respiration
  2. 2. Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis CO2 + H2O + energy sugars + O2 Cell Respiration Sugars + O2 CO2 + H2O + energy
  3. 3. Cellular Respiration
  4. 4. You breathe air into your lungs. The oxygen in the air you breathe is absorbed into the blood in the capillaries that surround your lungs and then transported via the pulmonary vein into the left side of your heart. The oxygenated blood is pumped out of the left side of your heart and into the arteries that deliver it throughout your body to your muscles. When the oxygenated blood reaches your muscles the oxygen is absorbed into your muscle cells. . At the same time that your blood is providing oxygen to your muscles, it is also removing carbon dioxide The de-oxygenated and carbon dioxide rich blood is pumped out of the right side of your heart to your lungs via your pulmonary artery. Once in the lungs, your blood releases the carbon dioxide into the air that you breathe out and absorbs more oxygen from the air that you breathe in, and the entire process begins again. Glucose + O2 CO2 + H2O (l) + ATP
  5. 5. Cellular Respiration Generate ATP
  6. 6. How Do cells make ATP FermentationNO oxygen Anaerobic Respirationno oxygen Aerobic RespirationOXYGEN Reverse process of photosynthesis Takes place in mitochondria Harvest potential energy in food, use it to make ATP ALL organisms do some sort of ATP generation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP
  7. 7. Aerobic Respiration Redox reaction Oxidize glucose and reduce oxygen Carried out in 3 steps 1. Glycolysisbreaking a 6-carbon glucose into 2 3-carbon pyruvate molecules, use NADH to catch electrons 2. Krebs Cycleoxidize pyruvate, release C02 ,and FADH2 3. Electron Transport Chaintransfers electrons from NADH and FADH2 down a gradient using ATP synthase to make ATP
  8. 8. Aerobic Respiration
  9. 9. Mitochondria Glycolysis takes place in cells cytoplasm Rest of the reactions take place in mitochondria Cristaefolds to increase surface area of inner membrane Intermembrane compartmentarea between 2 membranes Electron transport chains Matrixspace within the inner membrane Krebs Cycle
  10. 10. Structure of Mitochondrion
  11. 11. Glycolysis Can be done with or without oxygen Done in cells cytoplasm 10 Steps First 5 steps prepare glucose Last 5 steps get the energy out Produces 2 molecules of ATP Substrate level phosphorylation Does NOT need proton gradient or ATP synthase (like chemiosmotic phosphorylation)
  12. 12. First 5 Steps
  13. 13. Last 5 Steps
  14. 14. Stages of Cellular Respiration Glycoysis
  15. 15. Formation of Acetyl CoA Before we can start Krebs Cycle have to convert pyruvate In mitochondrial matrix Pyruvate loses CO2 molecule NADH reduced to NADH Acetyl CoA = 2 Carbon molecule
  16. 16. Acetyl CoA
  17. 17. Krebs Cycle Occurs mitochondria matrix Cycle turns 2 times for every glucose molecule 1. Acetyl CoA loses coenzyme = 2 Carbon molecule 2. 2-Carbon + oxaloacetate = citrate 3. CO2 released 4. Electrons transferred to NADH and FADH2 5. ATP made by substrate level phosphorylation
  18. 18. Outputs of Krebs Cycle 4 CO2 2 ATP 6 NADH 2 FADH2 Heat Intermediate molecules in cycle can be used to make other organic molecules, amino acids, fats
  19. 19. Cellular Respiration: NADH
  20. 20. Cellular Respiration: NADH Electron Transport Chain http://media.pearsoncmg.com/bc/bc _0media_bio/bioflix/bioflix.htm?cc7r espiration Just first subsection: overview
  21. 21. (Krebs Cycle)
  22. 22. Electron Transport Chain Takes place across the inner mitochondrial membrane Uses /electrons from NADH and FADH2 NADH and FADH2 donate electrons to enzymes in membrane to create H+ gradient In AEROBIC respiration final electron acceptor is O2 O2 combines with H+ to make water ATP finally made by chemiosmotic phosphorylation Protons through ATP synthase to turn ADP to ATP
  23. 23. Electron Transport Chain
  24. 24. Stages of Cellular Respiration: Chemiosmosis http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zfvVvC4-u_A&feature=related
  25. 25. Final Outputs of Respiration Aerobic Respiration Per 1 Glucose Molecule 10 NADH 2 FADH2 36 ATP
  26. 26. Alternate Energy Pathways Anaerobic Respiration No oxygen Different terminal electron acceptor NO3-, SO4-, CH4 Amount of ATP produced depends on terminal electron acceptor Fermentation No oxygen Only uses glycolysis Only generates 2 ATP Can use sugar, alcoholic, lactic acid
  27. 27. Different Types of Fermentation Pyruvic acid CO2 + acetaldehyde + NADH ethanol + NAD+
  28. 28. Photosynthesis v. Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Energy source Light Food Energy released No, stored Yes Reactants H2O, CO2 Glucose, O2 Products Glucose, O2 CO2, H2O
  29. 29. 22 O2 Glucose 2 Pyruvate NADHNADHNADHFADH2 ATPATPATP34 H2O CO2 Glycolysis Carbon reactions Photosynthesis ATP NADPH NADP+ ADP Cellular respiration Electron transport chain Krebs cycle 2 Acetyl CoA Light reactions
  30. 30. Connections Among Metabolic Pathways
  31. 31. Connections Among Metabolic Pathways