What is intelligence? Spearman’s “G” ◦ General intelligence ◦ One basic trait ◦ Inferred from vocabulary, memory, & reasoning
Text of Adulthood: Cognitive Development Age 25 + What is adult IQ, and how does expertise develop?
Adulthood: Cognitive Development Age 25 + What is adult IQ, and how does expertise develop? What is intelligence? Spearmans G General intelligence One basic trait Inferred from vocabulary, memory, & reasoning How is age related to intelligence? IQ Once thought to decline after age 20 Now only thought to decline at age 60, 70, 80 Seattle longitudinal study Intellectual functioning in older adults increases if they do paid work that is intellectually stimulating. What are the components of intelligence? What are two clusters (types) of intelligence? Fluid intelligence Quick and flexible Provides easy learning Good working memory & abstract thought Decreases during adulthood Can be temporarily counteracted by crystallized intelligence Crystallized intelligence Accumulated learning Vocabulary - Language Increases during adulthood Fluid & Crystallized intelligence Do you remember? What is Spearmans G? What is the difference between fluid and crystallized intelligence? Which declines with age? How can this decline be temporarily counteracted? What are Sternbergs types of intelligence? Analytic intelligence Book smarts Remembering things in high school and college Creative intelligence Flexible Imaginative thinking Not standard or conventional Practical intelligence Street smarts How does age effect intelligence? What do you gain and lose with age? How can selective optimization & compensation help adults? People select what they want to focus on E.g. Pediatric nursing (Selection) People compensate for aging or other difficulties E.g. Wear glasses or increase type size on computer (Compensation) Build their nursing expertise (Optimization) Expert Cognition (Thinking) How do experts think? What is a selective expert? Everyone has more skill and knowledge than others in what they are interested in What determines who is an expert? E.g. Brain surgeon More skilled and knowledgeable than novices How do experts think? Intuitive Rely on past experience More intuitive, less Stereotypical Knows when to bend formal procedures and rules E.g. Gut feeling that this is what to do Automatic Thinking without deliberate, conscious thought E.g. Driving Process most tasks automatically Saving conscious thought for unfamiliar challenges How do experts think? Cont. Strategic Better strategies handling unexpected problems Flexible Being creative and flexible when needed. Example = The miracle on the Hudson Flight What is the relationship between expertise and age? Expertise needs time, training, ability and practice to develop Expertise can sometimes overcome the effects of age Experienced adults often use selective optimization with compensation Do you remember? What are Sternbergs three types of intelligence? How can adults use their intellectual strengths to compensate for declining abilities? What is intuitive and automatic thinking?