Later AdulthoodBrainstorm: 60-74And 75 plus?
Generativity results Summer, 10
BrainstormingFree associate to old age, seniors, elderly.What are your expectations of your later adulthood, i.e. 60-74?What factors contribute to a healthy vs. an unhealthy older adulthood?
Developmental TasksAccepting ones lifePromoting intellectual vigorRedirecting energy toward new goalsDeveloping a point of view about death
The Psychosocial Crisis: Integrity vs. Despair
Defining Healthy and Unhealthy AgingHealthyActiveDisease-free IndependentUnhealthyFatigueSick InactiveLoss of ADLs
Successful AgingAvoiding illnessEngagement with lifeHigh cognitive and physical functioning
Age related changesSome examplesPhysical changesSensory changesStamina, dexterity and balanceIllnessCognitive changesyes, butNeural plasticity continues throughout the lifespanPhysical exercise==blood flow==neural nourishmentLearning new things keeps the brain healthy and growingPsychosocialRole gain and role lossIncrease in lossesAgeism
Do we live in an ageist society?deep and profound prejudice against the elderly (Robert N. Butler, M.D.)"any attitude, action, or institutional structure which subordinates a person or group because of age or any assignment of roles in society purely on the basis of age" (Linda M. Wolfe, Ph.D website) http://www.oldwomensproject.org/index.htm- skits demonstrating an ageist comment with helpful responses.
Contributors to Unhealthy AgingPersonality-neuroticism*Inadequate nutrition*DisinterestLimited resourcesPhysical limitations, e.g. teeth problemsNo appetiteLack of exercise: 60%+ (CDC) of older adults dont get adequate exerciseEarly family adversity
*Linked with fatigue
Contributors to healthy agingNutritionAntioxidants improve cognitive functionBlueberries, avocadoes, fish, dark chocolate, nuts5 fruits/vegies a day; even 2 shows a positive effect on cognitive function.Exercise - physical, psychological, cognitive benefitsTai Chi 1/week=fewer falls through better balanceAerobic exercise (150 minutes moderate intensity/week) reduces risk of heart disease, stroke, high bp, etc.Strength training increases stamina and independence 2 days/weekBalance exercises decrease rate of fallsActivity decreases depression, colon cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis
Healthy Aging, continuedPersonalityExtroversionConscientiousness OptimismSense of control
Social connectionsHelp with stress managementMeaningful roles
Vulnerability-Stress ModelIndividual vulnerability + Stress =Low quality aging
Adaptation to Change and Healthy Aging-the SOC ModelSelectionOptimization--CompensationSmall groups: Eating, Exercise or Cognitive ActivityHow might you encourage older adults to select your topic as a priority?How can the individuals internal resources be best used?What limitations exist and what are detours around them?
Very Old Age-75+Coping with physical changes of agingDeveloping a psychohistorical perspectiveTraveling unchartered territory
The Crisis: Immortality vs. Extinction
What is a psychohistorical perspective? Integration of personal and societal experiences in the past with the present situation and future expectations/possibilities. For 80 year olds (born in 1931) what are some significant historical events?Consider your time on earth so far.Significant personal events/experiences?Significant social events/changes?Imagine how these might impact you over time.
http://www.theelders.org/eldersHow might the psychohistorical perspective of the elders have contributed to their choice to focus on equality of women and girls?What other connections can you make between their histories and their work?Consider the basic concepts of psychosocial theoryhow are they relevant to the development of the Elders?
Demographic Trends (Social Work in Health Care)Increase in number of older adults12.7% now, 20% in 2050Worker:Social Security recipient=3.1:1; will be 2:1Chronic Illness and ConditionsGrowing diversityChronic illnesses differ across groupsElders of color and low income have had less access to healthcareBelief about end of life care differ across groups
Trends, continuedIntergenerational Families and Care-giving70% of seniors who live in the community and need assistance rely entirely on family25% of households are involved in caring for a relative over 50Elders are providing care to grandchildrenChanges in Health Care worldCommunity based careConsumer Centered/Consumer Directed Care
Social Work Knowledge and SkillsKnowledge about health and emerging health care worldRapid evolution of skillsCultural competenceClinical case managementAdvocacy and empowerment skillsResearch and evidence-based practiceSkills for ethical practice
In small groupsIdentify & prioritize Ms. Sophies major needs/problems.Discuss the major influences on her aging process. What would you say are the three strongest influences?Consider information from class and discuss:Specific issues that affect the helping processHow you might effectively work with Ms. Sophie and her family to attain the highest quality of life possible.
Panel discussion questionsWhat have your experiences with grandparents been like? This could be your own, your childrens, or other peoples.Are your experiences reflected in the descriptions of grandparent types in the text?What meaningful roles have you observed older adults to fill?What made them meaningful?What other ideas do you have for creating meaningful roles for older adults?Think about your life from a psychohistorical perspective. What major events or contextual characteristics do you think have affected you such that you will reflect on them in your very old age?What major events or contextual characteristics do you believe will influence your generation (cohort)?
Early Family Adversity-long term effectsAdversity defined as: parental lossabuse or inadequate parentinghigh level of conflict and/or violenceMultiple pathways for this connectionAdversity psychosocial characteristics and unhealthy behaviors physiological changes.Adversity increased physical and psychological problems linked with cognitive impairment.Adversity highly stressful events cognitive decline.
Specific outcomes linked with early family adversityHeightened dysregulation of physiological responsesExaggerated or flattened response to stressIncreased risk of heart failure, stroke, diabetesall linked with cognitive declinePoor coping strategiesIncreased stress over lifespanMajor depression and PTSD
For Panel on WednesdayRead Intergenerational Relationships in Various Ethnic Groups on page 508.Consider how this matches up with your own experience or others you know.Imagine yourself as a grandparent. What would you like your role to be?What values, in addition to individualism and collectivism, underlie your perspective?