Age of Exploration, 1400-1800
I. Europeans Explore AsiaPrior to 1400s, Europeans had little interest or ability to explore far-off, foreign landsThe ideas and events of the Renaissance stirred European unrest/curiosity 3 motivating factors: 1) Economic motivations (wanted to be rich)Spices/luxury items from Asia were introduced during the CrusadesTrade took place between Italian and Muslim merchants who charged high pricesEuropean merchants looked for a direct route to Asia to secure items at lower cost 2) Spread of ChristianityMany Europeans felt it was their duty to convert non-ChristiansCHALLENGE QUESTION!
I. Continued3 motivating factors (continued) 3) New technologies New ships (caravels) were faster, sturdier, and could sail against the windMagnetic compass and astrolabe allowed for better navigation, map making Portugal first to embrace and pursue explorationFirst to establish trading outposts along African coast Supported by Prince Henry of PortugalFounded navigation school, supported explorers financially
I. Continued1488 Portuguese sailors rounded tip of Africa, began exploring east Africa1498 Vasco da Gama travelled to Calcuta, India Spain was jealous of Portugals successSent Christopher Columbus searching for a route to Asia in 1492Rivalry between Spain and Portugal grew tensePope Alexander VI suggested created a dividing line that split the worldSigned the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494Dividing line ran north-south, gave Spain all lands west, Portugal all lands east
Map of Conquest, 1494-1506Source - http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/history/lecture14/fig_14-1.html
II. Trading Empires in the Indian OceanAfter da Gamas voyage, Portugal established a thriving trading empire throughout Indian OceanSeized control of spice trade from Muslim merchantsCaptured trading ports in Middle East, India, East Indies (modern-day Malaysia and Indonesia)Prices for Asian goods dropped in Europe, access increased Success of Portuguese attracted other European countries to areaAround 1600, Dutch and English challenged Portuguese dominance Established East India Companies to trade with AsiaCould mint money, make treaties, establish armiesWould lay the foundation for colonies later Dutch and English remained dominant forces into modern times
Dutch Empire, 17th 19th centuries. British Empire, early 20th century
II. ContinuedCompetition between European nations eventually leads to worldwide conflict Seven Years WarEnd of War gives British control over vast territoryEuropeans controlled many Asian ports, but influence was limited Small groups converted to Christianity, but majority of populations remained elusive Chinese and Japanese governments implement policies of isolation to limit European influence
EXIT TICKETWhat role did religion play for the Europeans during the Age of Exploration?Describe a piece of technology that allowed Europeans to go out and explore. Who was the first person to round the southern tip of Africa? Christopher ColumbusVasco da GamaPrince Henry What did the Treaty of Tordesillas do?
III. China During the Age of ExplorationMing Dynasty (1368-1644)Founded by Hongwu in 1368, originally a peasant Sought to restore power of China, erase Mongol pastEncouraged return to Confucian ideas, restored examination systemEventually became a tyrant, killing thousands of government officials suspected of plotting against himYonglo, son of Hongwu, continued many policies of his fatherBegan short-lived Chinese age of exploration Zheng He led all voyagesExplored as far as West Africa, established a system of tribute in more than 16 countriesTreasure Fleet voyages mysteriously ended in 1433CHALLENGE QUESTION!
III. ContinuedTrade and commerce become highly regulatedConfucian beliefs argued against idea of commerce, trade for profitEconomic policies favored agriculture, not external tradeFear of outside (European) influence Policy of isolation had unintended consequencesLack of technological progress Europeans and others developed better weapons, navigation tools over timeLimited access to resources in times of needSociety falls into disrepair money spent on defense not on supporting population Fall of Ming Dynasty caused by civil unrest, brought on by problems associated with isolation policy
IV. Japan Becomes Isolated1400s civil war had disrupted centralized Japanese leadershipWith centralized power gone, feudalism became dominant systemRegional warlords (daimyo) held real power, emperor had little sayWarlords relied on samurai to protect land and control peasant population European contact began mid-16th centuryBrought new technologies, ideasGuns, printing press, mechanical clocks
IV. ContinuedBrought new technologies, ideas (continued)Christian missionaries attempted to convertSome early success, many people were interested Western ideasBut, by late 16th century, Christian missionaries and converts were being actively persecutedThought to be a threat to the social orderIsolationBy mid-17th century, Japanese ships forbidden to sail overseasOutsiders limited to port of Nagasaki only Dutch and Chinese merchantsFor more than 200 years, Japan was basically closed to Europeans and the West
CHALLENGE QUESTION!Make a prediction (or three)! What do you think motivated the Europeans to go out and explore the world? List and explain at least three possible motivating factors.Complete sentences!BACK
CHALLENGE QUESTION!After the Ming dynasty ended the voyages of the Treasure Fleet, China begin to enforce a policy of isolation. What factors might have motivated China into isolating themselves from the rest of the world?What might be the positive and negative consequences of such a policy?Complete sentences, at least a paragraph. BACK