An Age of Exploration and Isolation, 1400—1800

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World History Patterns of Interaction Chapter 19

Text of An Age of Exploration and Isolation, 1400—1800

  • 1.Chapter 19Pgs 460479

2. Section 1Pgs 463468 3. Main reason for exploration Through overseas exploration, merchants ,and traders hoped tobenefit from the trade of spices in Asia Christians introduced to these items during the Crusades After the crusades Europeans still demanded these goods High demand=high prices Muslims and Italians controlled trade of goods from east to west Muslims sold Asian goods to Italian merchants Italians controlled the trade across land routes of theMediterranean Resold to items at increased prices to merchants, severely cuttingmerchants prophets Sought to bypass Italian merchants by finding a sea routedirectly to Asia 4. Crusades left feeling of hostility between Christiansand Muslims European nations believed they had a sacred duty tocontinue fighting Muslims and to convert non-Christians throughout the world Wanted to Christianize the people of Asia Bartolomeu Dias explained motives to serve God and His Majesty, to give light those whowere in darkness and grow rich as all men desire to do 5. Advances in technology made voyages of discoverypossible Shipbuilders designed a new vessel, which was sturdierthan earlier vessels and was able to sail against thewind Earlier boats couldnt sail against the wind To better determine their location, Europeans used theastrolabe Used magnetic compass invented by the Chinese 6. Used to better determinelocation at sea Perfected by Muslims Brass circle with carefullyadjusted rings marked off indegrees Using the rings to sight thestars, the sea captain could tellhow far north or south of theequator he was 7. Portuguese sea captain explained motives for converting non-Christians to serve God and His Majesty, to give light those whowere in darkness and grow rich as all men desire to do sailed down the coast of Africa, until he reached thetip, when he was caught in a storm The storm blew him and his crew to the southeastcoast of Africa, and he considered going to India Exhausted crew and short supply forced him to turnback 8. Henry the Navigator Portugals most enthusiastic supporter of exploration Dreams of oversea exploration began when heconquered the Muslim city of Ceuta First glimpse of the wealth outside of Europe Determined to reach the source of the wealth in theEast Wanted to spread the Christian faith In 1419, he founded a Navigational school in Portugal By time of his death Portugal had many trading postsalong the coast of Africa 9. Muslim city in North Africa Conquered by Henry theNavigator of Portugal Gave Portuguese, their firstglimpse of the wealth in theeast had exotic stores filled withpepper, cinnamon, cloves, andother spices Contained large supplies ofgold, silver, and jewels 10. Portuguese explorer Reached the port of Calicut On the southwestern coast of India Amazed by the spices, rare jewels, and precious gemsthat filled Calicuts shops Filled ships with such items After returning from Calicut, he received a heroswelcome Voyage of 27,000 miles had given Portugal a direct searoute to India 11. Located on thesouthwestern coast ofIndia Filled with spices, raresilks and precious gems Discovered by Vasco daGama Gave Portugal a directsea route to India 12. Italian sea captain Convince Spain to finance finding a route to Asia bysailing west across the Atlantic Ocean While sailing to Asia he reached the shores of anisland in the Caribbean, and believed he had reachedIndia, and claimed it for Spain Open way for European colonization in the Americas Increased tensions between Spain and Portugal Unknown if Columbus land he had claimed for Spain hadalready been claimed for Portugal 13. Stepped in betweenPortugal and Spainto keep the peace ofthe two nations suggested the Lineof Demarcation 14. Created to keep peace betweenPortugal and Spain Suggested by Pope Alexander VI Imaginary dividing line, drawnnorth to south through theAtlantic Ocean All lands to the west wouldbelong to Portugal All lands to the east wouldbelong to Spain Later line would be movedfarther west to include parts ofmodern-day Brazil for thePortuguese 15. A 1494 treaty betweenPortugal and Spain Declared newly discoveredlands to the west of the Lineof Demarcation wouldbelong to Spain Declared newly discoveredland to the east of the Lineof Demarcation wouldbelong to Portugal 16. Port city on Indiaswest coast Captured by thePortuguese Capital ofPortugals tradingempire 17. City on the west coastof the Malay peninsula Attacked by Portuguese Its capture gave thePortuguese control ofthe Strait of Malacca Later captured by theDutch 18. Captured byPortuguese afterthey capturedMalacca Its capture allowedthe Portuguese gavethem control of theMoluccas 19. spice islands Very rich in spices Captured andcontrolled byPortugal afterthey captured theStrait of Malacca 20. Portuguese sea captain Stressed countrys intense desireto crush the Muslim-Italiandomination over Asian trade If we deprive them [Muslims] of this theirancient market there, there does not remainfor them a single port in the whole of theseparts, where they can carry on their trade inthese things. . . . I hold it as very certain thatif we take this trade of Malacca away out oftheir hands, Cairo and Mecca are entirelyruined, and to Venice will no spiceries . . .[be]. . . conveyed except that which her merchantsgo and buy in Portugal 21. Spanish seacaptain Claimed thePhilippines forSpain Began settlingin them 22. Netherlands Small country situated along the North Sea innorthwestern Europe Leading sea power Largest fleet in the world 20,000 vessels Established the Dutch East India Company Began to challenge Portugals dominance over theIndian Ocean trade 23. Companies that established and directedtrade throughout Asia Had the power to mint money make treaties raise their own armies 24. Founded in the early 17th century by the Netherlands Meant to establish and direct trade throughout Asia Had the power to mint money make treaties raise their own armies Richer and more powerful than Englands company Dutch eventually drove out the English and established dominance over the regoin established their trading headquarter at Batavia seized the port of Malacca and the valuable Spice Islands from Portugal increased its control over the Indian Ocean trade so many goods from the East traveling to the Netherlands, the nationscapital, Amsterdam, became a leading commercial center ruled much of Indonesia and had trading posts in several Asian countries controlled the Cape of Good Hope used as a resupply stop. 25. On island of Java Location where Dutchestablished their traininghead quarters From their the Dutchconquered several nearbyislands. Batavia 26. Controlled byDutch On southern tipof AfricaCape of GoodHope 27. Less powerful than the Dutch East IndiaCompany Focused much of its energy on establishingoutposts in India Built up a successful business trading finecloth 28. It struggled at first it faced continual attacks by the Dutch Eventually established an outpost in India in the1720s. never showed much of a profit. 29. Section 2Pgs 469473 30. 13681644 (276 years) Caused China to become the dominant power in Asia rulers were not going to allow outsiders from distantlands into their country in fear of them threating thepeace and prosperity they had brought to China whenthey ended Mongol rule 31. Son of a peasant Commanded the rebel army that drove the Mongols out of china in 1368 First emperor of Ming Dynasty Began reforms Agricultural reforms Increased rice production Improved irrigation Introduced farm fishing and the growing of commercial crops (cotton and sugar cane) Erase traces of Mongol past Promote Chinas power and prosperity Used respected traditions to bring stability to China Encouraged a return to Confucian moral standards Improved imperial administration Restoring the merit-based civil service Became a ruthless tyrant, later on in his rule, when problems began to develop Suspecting plots against his rule, he conducted purges Thousands of government officials were killed After his death, there was a struggle for power Father of Yonglo 32. Located in southernChina Capital city under theYuan Dynasty Hongwus place of rule 33. Son of Hongwu Became ruler of China, after a struggle for power, after hisfathers death Continued many of his fathers policies Moved the royal court to Beijing Had a far-ranging curiosity about the outside world 1405 , before Europeans began to explore, he launched 7voyages of expedition All led by Zhang He Hoped to impress the world with the power of Ming China Acomplished by voyages 34. led Yonglos sevenvoyages of expedition Distributed gifts, suchas gold, silver, silk and scented outs to everyone, to showChinese superiority As a result, more than 16 countries sent tribunes to China Many envoys traveled to China Chinese scholar-officials opposed this idea, saying that it was a wasteof valuable resources 35. To keep influence of outsiders down, only the government wasable to conduct foreign trade In reality, trade flourished up and down the coast Prophet-oriented merchants sold goods such as spices and silk toEuropeans, for much less than what they were used to paying Demand for Chinese goods had a large effect on the economy Silk and ceramic making industries grew rapidly Manufacturing and commerce increased China did NOT become industrialized Idea of commerce offended Chinas Confucian belief Chinese economic policies traditionally favored agriculture Taxes on agriculture lowered Taxes on manufacturing skyrocketed 36. First missionary, under Mingrule, to have an impact Italian Jesuit Gained special favor at the Mingcourt Able to speak and write Chinese Still opposed by many of theeducated Chinese opposedChristianity 37. Extravagant palace complex at the capital city, Beijing Monument to Chinas isolationism Built by Yonglo between 1404 and 1420 Known as foreign city because it was forbidden to allcommoners and foreigners Inside emperors conducted business of