Boeing 747

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  • Boeing 747 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport aircraft, often

    referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the

    world's most recognizable aircraft,[4] and was the first wide-body ever produced. Manufactured by Boeing's Commercial Airplane unit in the United States, the original

    version of the 747 was two and a half times the size of the Boeing 707,[5] one of the common large commercial aircraft of the 1960s. First flown commercially in 1970, the

    747 held the passenger capacity record for 37 years.[6]

    The four-engine 747 uses a double deck configuration for part of its length. It is available

    in passenger, freighter and other versions. Boeing designed the 747's hump-like upper

    deck to serve as a first class lounge or (as is the general rule today) extra seating, and

    to allow the aircraft to be easily converted to a cargo carrier by removing seats and

    installing a front cargo door. Boeing did so because the company expected supersonic

    airliners (whose development was announced in the early 1960s) to render the 747 and

    other subsonic airliners obsolete, while believing that the demand for subsonic cargo

    aircraft would be robust into the future.[7] The 747 in particular was expected to become

    obsolete after 400 were sold,[8] but it exceeded its critics' expectations with production

    passing the 1,000 mark in 1993.[9] By December 2011, 1,427 aircraft had been built,

    with 97 of the 747-8 variants remaining on order.[2]

    The 747-400, the most common passenger version in service, is among the fastest

    airliners in service with a high-subsonic cruise speed of Mach 0.850.855 (up to 570mph,920km/h).Ithasanintercontinentalrangeof7,260nautical miles(8,350mior13,450km).[10] The 747-400 passenger version can accommodate 416 passengers in a typical three-class layout, 524 passengers in a typical two-class layout, or 660

    passengers in a high density one-class configuration.[11] The newest version of the aircraft, the 747-8, is in production and received certification in 2011. Deliveries of the

    747-8F freighter version to the launch customer Cargolux began in October 2011; the

    747-8I passenger version is to follow in 2012. The 747 is to be replaced by the Boeing

    Y3 (part of the Boeing Yellowstone Project) in the future.

    In 1963, the United States Air Force started a series of study projects on a very large strategic transport aircraft. Although the C-141 Starlifter

    was being introduced, they felt that a much larger and more capable aircraft was needed, especially the capability to carry outsized cargo that

    would not fit in any existing aircraft. These studies led to initial requirements for the CX-Heavy Logistics System (CX-HLS) in March 1964 for an


    Boeing 747

    British Airways Boeing 747-400 during takeoff

    Role Wide-body, long-range jet airliner

    National origin United States

    Manufacturer Boeing Commercial Airplanes

    First flight February 9, 1969[1]

    Introduction January 22, 1970 with Pan Am[1]

    Status In production, in service

    Primaryusers British Airways Cathay Pacific Korean Air China Airlines

    Produced 1969presentNumber built 1,428 as of January 2012[2]

    Unit cost 747-100:US$24million(1967) 747-200:US$39million(1976) 747-300:US$83million(1982) 747-400: US$228260million(2007)

    747-8I:US$317.5million[3] 747-8F:US$319.3million

    Variants Boeing 747SP Boeing 747-400 Boeing 747-8 Boeing VC-25 Boeing E-4

    Developed into Boeing YAL-1 Boeing 747 Large Cargo Freighter


    1 Development

    1.1 Background

    1.2 Airliner proposal

    1.3 Design effort

    1.4 Production plant

    1.5 Development and testing

    1.6 Entry into service

    1.7 Improved 747 versions

    1.8 Further developments

    2 Design

    3 Variants

    3.1 747-100

    3.2 747SP

    3.3 747-200

    3.4 747-300

    3.5 747-400

    3.6 747-8

    3.7 Government, military, and other variants

    3.8 Undeveloped variants

    4 Operators

    4.1 Orders and deliveries

    5 Accidents and incidents

    6 Aircraft on display

    7 Specifications

    8 Notable appearances in media

    9 See also

    10 References

    11 External links

    Development [edit]

    Background [edit]

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  • nauticalmiles(9,260km)withapayloadof115,000pounds(52,200kg).Thepayloadbayhadtobe17feet(5.18m)wideby13.5feet(4.11m)highand100feet(30.5m)longwithaccessthroughdoorsatthefrontandrear.[12]

    Featuring only four engines, the design also required new engine designs with greatly increased power and better fuel economy. On May 18,

    1964, airframe proposals arrived from Boeing, Douglas, General Dynamics, Lockheed and Martin Marietta; while engine proposals were

    submitted by General Electric, Curtiss-Wright, and Pratt & Whitney. After a downselect, Boeing, Douglas and Lockheed were given additional

    study contracts for the airframe, along with General Electric and Pratt & Whitney for the engines.[12]

    All three of the airframe proposals shared a number of features. As the CX-HLS needed to be able to be loaded from the front, a door had to be

    included where the cockpit usually was. All of the companies solved this problem by moving the cockpit to above the cargo area; Douglas had a

    small "pod" just forward and above the wing, Lockheed used a long "spine" running the length of the aircraft with the wing spar passing through

    it, while Boeing blended the two, with a longer pod that ran from just behind the nose to just behind the wing.[13] In 1965 Lockheed's aircraft design and General Electric's engine design were selected for the new C-5 Galaxy transport, which was the largest military aircraft in the world

    at the time.[12] The nose door and raised cockpit concepts would be carried over to the design of the 747.[14]

    The 747 was conceived while air travel was increasing in the 1960s.[15] The era of commercial jet transportation, led by the enormous popularity

    of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, had revolutionized long-distance travel.[15][16] Even before it lost the CX-HLS contract, Boeing was pressed by Juan Trippe, president of Pan American World Airways (Pan Am), one of its most important airline customers, to build a passenger aircraft

    more than twice the size of the 707. During this time, airport congestion, worsened by increasing numbers of passengers carried on relatively

    small aircraft, became a problem that Trippe thought could be addressed by a large new aircraft.[17]

    In 1965, Joe Sutter was transferred from Boeing's 737 development team to manage the design studies for a new airliner, already assigned the

    model number 747.[18] Sutter initiated a design study with Pan Am and other airlines, in order to better understand their requirements. At the

    time, it was widely thought that the 747 would eventually be superseded by supersonic transport aircraft.[19] Boeing responded by designing the 747 so that it could be adapted easily to carry freight and remain in production even if sales of the passenger version declined. In the freighter

    role, the clear need was to support the containerized shipping methodologies that were being widely introduced at about the same time.

    Standardcontainersare8ft(2.4m)squareatthefront(slightlyhigherduetoattachmentpoints)andavailablein20and40ft(6.1and12m)lengths. This meant that it would be possible to support a 2-wide 2-high stack of containers two or three ranks deep with a fuselage size similar

    to the earlier CX-HLS project.

    In April 1966, Pan Am ordered 25 747-100aircraftforUS$525million.Duringtheceremonial747contract-signing banquet in Seattle on Boeing's 50th Anniversary, Juan Trippe predicted that the 747

    would be "... a great weapon for peace, competing with intercontinental missiles for mankind's

    destiny", according to Malcolm T. Stamper, who led the 747 program.[4] As launch customer,[1][20] and because of its early involvement before placing a formal order, Pan Am was able to influence the

    design and development of the 747 to an extent unmatched by a single airline before or since.[21]

    Ultimately, the high-winged CX-HLS Boeing design was not used for the 747, although technologies

    developed for their bid had an influence.[22] The original design included a full-length double-deck fuselage with rows of eight-across seating and two aisles on the lower deck and seven-across

    seating and two aisles on the upper deck.[23] However, concern over evacuation routes and limited

    cargo-carrying capability