Cell Energy: Photosynthesis & Respiration. Biology 4B Investigate and Identify cellular processes including synthesis of new molecules

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    15-Dec-2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Cell Energy: Photosynthesis & Respiration
  • Slide 2
  • Biology 4B Investigate and Identify cellular processes including synthesis of new molecules.
  • Slide 3
  • How are plant & animal cells alike & different?
  • Slide 4
  • SYNTHESIS Cells Make Molecules Cells dont make just anything. They make molecules. And the process by which cells make molecules is called synthesis One important molecule synthesized by plant cells is glucose. (Made in chloroplasts) Plant and animal cells use glucose as an energy source by changing it to ATP (In the mitochondria)
  • Slide 5
  • Todays Learning Goals In plants, chlorophyll (found in chloroplasts) captures energy from the sun in order to make food during photosynthesis In plants, chlorophyll (found in chloroplasts) captures energy from the sun in order to make food during photosynthesis Cells release energy from food through either cellular respiration or fermentation Cells release energy from food through either cellular respiration or fermentation Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration are considered to be opposite. They feed each other. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration are considered to be opposite. They feed each other.
  • Slide 6
  • How Does a Plant Make Its Own Food? Plants use carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), water (H 2 O), and suns energy to make food in the form of glucose. Plants use carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), water (H 2 O), and suns energy to make food in the form of glucose. This is called photosynthesis This is called photosynthesis The glucose gives plants energy The glucose gives plants energy Animals get the energy stored in plants when they eat them. Animals get the energy stored in plants when they eat them. GLUCOSE
  • Slide 7
  • How Do Plants Get Energy From Sun? Plants have pigments that absorb energy from light Plants have pigments that absorb energy from light Chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis. They contain Chlorophyll (the pigment used in photosynthesis) Chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis. They contain Chlorophyll (the pigment used in photosynthesis) CO2 enters through the stomata; O2 exits through them
  • Slide 8
  • What Food do Plants Make? The food plants make is a sugar called glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ). The food plants make is a sugar called glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ). Glucose and oxygen (O 2 ) are made during photosynthesis. Glucose and oxygen (O 2 ) are made during photosynthesis.
  • Slide 9
  • How Do Organisms Get Energy From Food? Animals cannot make their own food like plants can. Animals cannot make their own food like plants can. But, BOTH plants and animals must break down (digest) food in order to get energy from it (so they can live, grow, & develop) But, BOTH plants and animals must break down (digest) food in order to get energy from it (so they can live, grow, & develop) Cells do this 2 ways: cellular respiration and fermentation Cells do this 2 ways: cellular respiration and fermentation
  • Slide 10
  • Cellular Respiration & Fermentation Cellular Respiration uses oxygen (O 2 ) to break down food Cellular Respiration uses oxygen (O 2 ) to break down food Fermentation does not use oxygen Fermentation does not use oxygen Cellular respiration releases more energy from food than Fermentation. Cellular respiration releases more energy from food than Fermentation. So most eukaryotes (ex: plants & animals) get their energy through cellular respiration So most eukaryotes (ex: plants & animals) get their energy through cellular respiration
  • Slide 11
  • Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration is a chemical process that happens in cells Cellular Respiration is a chemical process that happens in cells In prokaryotes, it happens in the cell membranes In prokaryotes, it happens in the cell membranes In eukaryotes, like our cells, it happens mostly in the mitochondria In eukaryotes, like our cells, it happens mostly in the mitochondria Cells that need a lot of energy contain lots of mitochondria (Example-heart cells which are always contacting or sperm cells which are constantly swimming)
  • Slide 12
  • Process of Cellular Respiration Food (glucose) is broken down into CO2 and H2O and energy is released C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy (ATP) This energy can be used for: Keeping a constant body temperature Storage (ATP) - to be used later for things like growth
  • Slide 13
  • What Do You Notice?
  • Slide 14
  • Check It Out! Compare Respiration & Photosynthesis Did you notice that cellular respiration is just the opposite of photosynthesis? Did you notice that cellular respiration is just the opposite of photosynthesis? Photosynthesis Respiration
  • Slide 15
  • Fermentation Happens when cells cannot get the oxygen they need for cellular respiration Fermentation is a way to get energy when oxygen isnt available Ex: In short, fast races you might get a burning feeling in you leg muscles because of a build up of lactic acid (made during fermentation)
  • Slide 16
  • Pop Quiz 1) In respiration cells use oxygen (____) and glucose (____) to make energy. O 2 and C 6 H 12 O 6 are used to make ATP Energy O 2 and C 6 H 12 O 6 are used to make ATP Energy 2) Which organelle carries on cellular respiration? MITOCHONDRIA 3) Do plant or animal cells carry on cellular respiration? BOTH ANIMAL & PLANT CELLS NEED ENERGY 4) Do plant or animal cells carry on photosynthesis? PLANT CELLS BECAUSE ONLY THEY HAVE CHLOROPLASTS 5) What is the name for the energy produced by mitochondria? ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
  • Slide 17
  • Pop Quiz 6) Plants use carbon dioxide (____), water (____), and the suns energy to make: CO 2 and H 2 O are used to make GLUCOSE C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 and H 2 O are used to make GLUCOSE C 6 H 12 O 6 7) Which organelle carries on photosynthesis? CHLOROPLASTS FOUND ONLY IN PLANT CELLS 8) BOTH plants and animals must break down food in order to get ________from it. ENERGY IN THE FORM OF ATP 9) How are respiration and photosynthesis related? THEY ARE THE REVERSE (OPPOSITE) OF EACH OTHER. 10) Fermentation is a way to get energy when ______ isnt available. In humans ( ) acid is produced. OXYGEN and LACTIC ACID
  • Slide 18
  • Practice Questions Working muscle cells that are deprived of oxygen produce: Working muscle cells that are deprived of oxygen produce: A.Alcohol A.Alcohol B.Lactic Acid B.Lactic Acid C.Citric Acid C.Citric Acid D.Acetone D.Acetone
  • Slide 19
  • Practice Questions Which of these is a characteristic of body cells that require large amounts of energy? Which of these is a characteristic of body cells that require large amounts of energy? A.They have large number of mitochondria A.They have large number of mitochondria B.They have a supplementary Y chromosome B.They have a supplementary Y chromosome C.They have a two-layer membrane C.They have a two-layer membrane D.They have a storage area for albumin proteins. D.They have a storage area for albumin proteins.
  • Slide 20
  • Practice Questions Why are photosynthesis and cellular respiration often considered opposites? Why are photosynthesis and cellular respiration often considered opposites? A.Photosynthesis produces twice as many ATP molecules as cellular respiration does A.Photosynthesis produces twice as many ATP molecules as cellular respiration does B.Water is released during photosynthesis and consumed during cellular respiration B.Water is released during photosynthesis and consumed during cellular respiration C.Photosynthesis occurs during the day and cellular respiration occurs at night C.Photosynthesis occurs during the day and cellular respiration occurs at night D.Oxygen is produced during photosynthesis and used during cellular respiration D.Oxygen is produced during photosynthesis and used during cellular respiration
  • Slide 21
  • Practice Questions Which molecule provides most of the energy used to drive reactions in cells? Which molecule provides most of the energy used to drive reactions in cells? A.DNA A.DNA B.RNA B.RNA C.ATP C.ATP D.ADP D.ADP
  • Slide 22
  • Practice Questions Which structure regulates gas exchange during the processes of photosynthesis and respiration? Which structure regulates gas exchange during the processes of photosynthesis and respiration? A.Q A.Q B.R B.R C.S C.S D.T D.T T is pointing to the guard cells which surround the openings called stomates. The guard cells open and close.
  • Slide 23
  • To produce 4 molecules of sugar, a plant needs- To produce 4 molecules of sugar, a plant needs- A.6 molecules of hydrogen A.6 molecules of hydrogen B.12 molecules of ATP B.12 molecules of ATP C.18 molecules of water C.18 molecules of water D.24 molecules of carbon dioxide D.24 molecules of carbon dioxide
  • Slide 24
  • DANA CENTER ACTIVITY TIME