Course ILT Memory systems Unit objectives Describe the function of memory and differentiate between different types of memory chips Differentiate between

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  • Course ILT Memory systems Unit objectives Describe the function of memory and differentiate between different types of memory chips Differentiate between different memory packages Test memory with a memory testing application and troubleshoot memory problems
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  • Course ILT Topic A Topic A: Memory Topic B: Memory packaging Topic C: Memory troubleshooting
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  • Course ILT Memory RAM = Random Access Memory Working area for data during processing Having sufficient RAM is critical Performance Software support Quality RAM is critical
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  • Course ILT Measurement units Bit Nibble = 4 bits Byte = 8 bits Word = based on CPU Pentium 4: 32-bit processor : 32 bit word
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  • Course ILT Larger units Byte (B) = 8 bits Kilobyte (KB) = 1024 bytes Megabyte (MB) = 1024 KB = 1,048,576 bytes Gigabyte (GB) = 1024 MB = 1,073,741,824 bytes Terabyte (TB) = 1024 GB or 1,099,511,627,776 bytes
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  • Course ILT Memory types Classify memory as: Volatile vs. non-volatile Static vs. dynamic Asynchronous vs. synchronous
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  • Course ILT Volatile vs. non-volatile memory RAMVolatile Random access memory CMOSVolatile Complementary metal oxide semiconductor ROMNon-volatile Read only memory PROMNon-volatile Programmable read only memory EPROMNon-volatile Erasable programmable read only memory EEPROMNon-volatile Electronically erasable programmable read only memory FlashNon-volatile
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  • Course ILT Dynamic vs. static memory Dynamic (DRAM) Must be continually refreshed Inexpensive Small Static (SRAM) Refreshing not required More expensive Larger Faster
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  • Course ILT Asynchronous and synchronous Asynchronous Not synchronized to system clock Consistent time to access and read data Synchronous Synchronized to system clock Access data and return in one or more clock cycles SDRAM faster than ADRAM
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  • Course ILT Memory access types DRAMDynamic RAM Older technology FPMFast Page Mode Improved over DRAM VRAMVideo RAM Dual port, optimized for video EDOExtended Data Out Improved over FPM BEDOBurst Extended Data Out Adds pipelining to EDO ADRAMAsynchronous DRAM Not synchronized to the system clock SDRAMSynchronous DRAM Interleaving permits overlapped requests DRDRAMDirect Rambus DRAM 16-bit memory bus and two transfers per clock cycle DDRDouble Data Rate Double transfer rate of SDRAM with two transfers per clock cycle DDR2Double Data Rate 64 bits per transfer to double DDR performance
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  • Course ILT Access time Latency Memory speed Nanoseconds vs. megahertz Overall speed Doesnt include latency Doesnt consider bus speed Bandwidth
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  • Course ILT Speed ratings
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  • Course ILT Activity A-1 Identifying memory characteristics
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  • Course ILT Topic B Topic A: Memory Topic B: Memory packaging Topic C: Memory troubleshooting
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  • Course ILT Packaging Individual chips Package Memory chips Connecting wires Support chips Pins or edge contacts
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  • Course ILT Individual chips
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  • Course ILT SIMM
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  • Course ILT Package types
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  • Course ILT Memory error recovery Paritydetects an error ECCdetects and corrects an error Desktop memoryno parity or ECC Server memoryoften includes parity or ECC
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  • Course ILT Parity 9 chips, supports parity 8 chips, no parity
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  • Course ILT Activity B-1 Comparing RAM packaging
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  • Course ILT Topic C Topic A: Memory Topic B: Memory packaging Topic C: Memory troubleshooting
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  • Course ILT Task Manager Windows GUI utility Provides information on currently running processes Version available on all Windows operating systems Windows 9x/Me Program List Windows NT/2000/XP Task Manager
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  • Course ILT Performance tab indicators CPU Usage CPU Usage History PF Usage Page File Usage History Totals Physical Memory (K) Commit Charge (K) Kernel Memory (K) Summary data
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  • Course ILT The Performance tab
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  • Course ILT Activity C-1 Monitoring memory usage
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  • Course ILT Activity C-2 Adjusting the Windows page file size
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  • Course ILT Memory symptoms 201 BIOS error code at boot time Parity error message Computer randomly freezes or crashes Wrong amount of memory reported by the BIOS Windows reports General Protection Fault, Page Fault, or Exception errors Random crashes, corrupted data, strange application behavior
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  • Course ILT Activity C-3 Troubleshooting memory
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  • Course ILT Unit summary Described the function of memory and differentiated between different types of memory chips Differentiated between different memory packages Tested memory with a memory testing application and resolved memory problems

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