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Учебное пособие: Коммутаторы локальных сетей D-Link Четвертое издание Москва, 2006

D-link manegement

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D-link manegement

Text of D-link manegement

  • :

    D-Link

    , 2006

  • D-Link

    2

    . .......................................................................................................................5

    : ....5 . ...............................................6

    .....................................................................................................7 ..................................................7 ..............................8 IEEE 802.3x ...................................9

    .................................................................................................................9 OSI .........................................................................10 .............................................................12 ...........................................12 ......................................................................13 ........................................................................................14

    ...............................................................15 xStack ..............................................................................................................19 . Single IP Management .....................................23

    , ............................25 ......................................................25 ..................................................................................................26 ..........................................................................................................27

    ..............................................................................28 ............................29

    ........................................................................................30 ..............................................................31 ........................................................................................................................31 ...................................................................................................32 ..................................................................................................................32

    D-LINK............................................................................................................................33 ...........................................................................................34 ............................................................................35 ..................................................................................................37

    ................................................................................................39

    , ....................39 .....................................................................................................39 .............................................................41 ..................................................................................43 ..............................................................................................43 .............................................................................45 Web- ..............................49

    ..................................................50

    VLAN ........................................................................................51 VLAN..................................................................................................................................51

    VLAN .........................................................................................................52

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    3

    VLAN MAC- ............................................................................................53 VLAN IEEE 802.1Q.........................................................54 IEEE 802.1Q ..............................................................................................55 VLAN 802.1Q ..........................................................................55 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN ....................................................................................................56 Port VLAN ID ..........................................................................................................................57 Tagged Untagged .............................................................................................................59 .................................................................................61

    VLAN CLI.......................................................................62 VLAN............................................................................................................64 1. VLAN ..........................................................................................................................66 2. VLAN ........................................................................................................................69

    ..............72 CLI ...........................76 1. .....................................................................77 2. IEEE 802.3ad ................................................................................................79

    SPANNING TREE PROTOCOL (IEEE 802.1D) .................................................................................82 ........................................................................................................................82 .........................................................................................82 .....................................................................................82 ......................................................................................................83

    STP................................................................................................................87 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)...............................................................92 IEEE 802.1w .................................................................................................95 / ..................................................98 ..................................................................................99 IEEE 802.1d/IEEE 802.1w ..............................................................100 .......................................................................................101 STP 802.1d RSTP 802.1w ..........................................101 STP CLI.................................................102

    (QOS) ...........................................................................................................104 (IEEE 802.1).....................................................104 CLI.....107

    ......................................................................................109 CLI.............109

    ....................................................................................................111 Port Security ................................................111 Port Security CLI .................................................................112

    .................................................................................................................114 Traffic Segmentation CLI...............................115

    IEEE 802.1 ..............................................................................................................116 .......................................................................................................................116 .....................................................................................118 IEEE 802.1 .........................................................119 IEEE 802.1 CLI ................................................120

    ACCESS CONTROL LISTS (ACL).....................................................................................................123 .........................................................................123

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    4

    ( Web-) ...........123 Access Control Lists (ACL) CLI ....................128 ........................................................................................131

    .........................................................................................................139 ..........................................................................139 - .................................................................................139 ..................................................................................140 IGMP v1.............................................................................................................140 IGMP v2.............................................................................................................141

    2 ...........................................142 IGMP- snooping CLI.........................................144

    : ...............................................................................................................................148

    . .....................................................................149

    . ..........................................................................................150

  • D-Link

    5

    .

    :

    . , . , - , . , .

    1

    , , .

    , 3- , VLAN . , .

    :

    , .

    VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) ,

  • D-Link

    6

    , .

    , .

    , Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet.

    1990- , . () , . , .

    . , ( , ). , .

    . , .

    :

    , .

    , .

    .

    .

    :

    ; ; .

    D-Link , .

  • D-Link

    7

    .

    , . , .

    (transparent bridge) IEEE 802.1, Ethernet. - . , 1 1, , (forwarding database). . , , , - (content-addressable memory, CAM). , , . . , , . , , .

    2

  • D-Link

    8

    . , - - . , - , , , . , , , . (flooding). . , . (broadcast) , . - , , , . (broadcast storm).

    , . (filtering) , - . , .

    : .

    - , , 1.

    , - - - . , . , , . , , , 2.

    1 (collision domain) Ethernet, , . 2 . .

  • D-Link

    9

    IEEE 802.3x

    , . (, ) - (, ) . - -, . , , , - (. 3).

    3 IEEE 802.3x

    - Ethernet . - - () /. , - .

    .

    (store-and-forward) . ( , 64 1518 ), . , . , , .

    - , .

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    10

    (cut-through) ( 6 ) , . , . :

    (fast-forward switching) , , . . , , , .

    (fragment-free switching) , . , 64 . , , 64 . , , , . .

    OSI

    OSI, , . 2 (Layer 2 Switch), 2 3 (Layer 3 Switch) .

    2 , OSI. 2 . 2- , OSI.

    2- . , . , Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC). , , .

    2 2- . . ( ), , , .

    2- , .

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    11

    (broadcast) , .

    , , 3- OSI .

    2 3 ( 3- ) , -. 3- ( 2) ( 3) OSI . , ( 2) ( 3) . 3 .

    3- :

    ( , IP-)

    3- IP- .

    3- , , ASIC. .

    D-Link 3- Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet. xStack DGS-3324SR, DGS-3324SRi, DXS-3326GSR, DXS-3350SR DES-3352SR, DGS-3312SR, DES-6500 .

    4- 3, (, Telnet FTP). D-Link 4- ( , ) , .

    2, 3 4. :

    - / IP- / (3-)

    /

    .

  • D-Link

    12

    ,

    , . , , . , . MAC- . .

    . ASIC, ( -) . , (), , , RISC- .

    ASIC 2 - ASIC, ( ) ASIC, . / ASIC , , - .

    3 :

    (cross-bar); (shared memory); .

    .

    (cross-bar) - , . , , .

    - , . ( ). . , cross-bar ,

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    13

    . , cross-bar .

    4

    (shared memory switch) . . , , 5 , .

    5

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    14

    (backplane) , . 6 - , ASIC. , , .

    6

    , , ,

    2*1N i / ( N , Cpi -

    , i- )

    . , , , , . . , (non-blocking) - .

  • D-Link

    15

    :

    ; ; ,

    .

    . 8 50 10,100,1000/, . Fast Ethernet D-Link DES-1005D, DES-1008D, DES-1018DG, DES-1024DG, DES-1010G, DES-1016D, DES-1024D .

    7 DES-1018DG

    8 DES-1226G

    . - , . hot swap, , , . .

    2 3 D-Link :

    2 DES-1200M, DES-6000, DES-7000 3 DES-6300, DES-6500.

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    16

    9 3- DES-6500

    . , , , , , . , .

    D-Link :

    Fast Ethernet 2/3- DES-3x26S;

    Fast Ethernet 2/3- DES-35xx 38 Single IP Management (SIM);

    Fast/Gigabit Ethernet 3- SIM xStack DES-3352SR, DGS-3324SR, DGS-3324SRi, DXS-3326GSR, DXS-3350SR, DGS-34xx DGS-36xx.

    .

    : , - , .

    , DGS-3324SR DES-3226S.

  • D-Link

    17

    10 DGS-3324SR

    11 DES-3226S

    ( ), 10.

    12 8 4

  • D-Link

    18

    , . 13 DES-3226S DES-3326S 12 xStack DGS-3324SR.

    : , , . -.

    , :

    , .. - . ( DES-3326S/3226S, 2- , );

    , - .

    D-Link Gigabit Ethernet 3- D-Link DGS-3312SR DGS-3324SRi, - .

    DEM-540, DGS-3312SR 12 2- DES-3226S, 288 10/100 / Fast Ethernet 12 Gigabit Ethernet, . , , DGS-3312SR , , 2- , 3- .

    13 DGS-3312SR ( ) DES-3226S

  • D-Link

    19

    xStack

    3 DGS-3324SR/DGS-3324SRi DXS-3326GSR/DXS-3350SR 10-Gigabit Ethernet xStack.

    xStack , , .

    xStack.

    8 4 (. 14). , . , (8->9->10->11->12->1->2->3->4).

    14

    xStack , (8->7->6->5->4).

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    20

    15 xStack

    (. 15) , 8 , , 4. , , .

    , xStack . (Full Redundancy Mechanism), , 8->9->10->11->12->1->2->3->4 (. 16)

  • D-Link

    21

    16 StackTM

    ( 6)

    StackTM DGS-3324SR, DGS-3324SRi, DXS-3326GSR DXS-3350SR 10 / . , 20 /.

    17

  • D-Link

    22

    40 /.

    18 StackTM

    12 DGS-3324SR, DXS-3326GSR DXS-3350SR 336 Gigabit Ethernet.

    StackTM - DGS-3324SRi. 6 DGS-3324SR, DXS-3326GSR DXS-3350SR 120 /. , -, 312 Gigabit Ethernet 12 10 Gigabit Ethernet.

    19 - DGS-3324Sri ( )

  • . Single IP Management

    , , . D-Link Single IP Management (SIM). DES-3526, DES-3550, DGS-3312SR xStack.

    Single IP Management (SIM) - IP . 32- , Ethernet.

    20 Single IP Management

    SIM : ,

    ; IP- ;

    , ; , .

    , , SIM 7- 12- . SIM- 32 , Single IP ManagementTM3. , , 2- ( ).

    SIM- . , , Fast

    3 Single IP ManagementTM (SIM) SIM-. SIM- ,

  • D-Link

    24

    Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GBE) . , . , . Ethernet .

  • D-Link

    25

    ,

    ,

    .

    , , :

    ; ; ; .

    , , . :

    ; () ; ; ; .

    - . , .

    (filtering) ,

    : ;

    ; ,

    ;

    - .

    (forwarding) ,

    : ;

    ;

    . ,

    . ,

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    26

    , , Ethernet , 64 ( ) 46 . , . , .

    ( ), . , , Ethernet, Fast Ethernet .. , , , , , . , .

    ,

    . , , , , - , .

    . , 5 40 , - 50 200 ( ).

    MAC-, . , .

    - , , , , 4 4 . D-Link

  • D-Link

    27

    4 8. 8 16, , 16 32 .

    . , , - . , , . , . , , , .

    , . . , , , . , , .

    ( 50-100) . . , , . (Flow control).

    , , . . .

  • D-Link

    28

    . D-Link

    , , , QoS , . , SNMP, D-Link D-View. D-Link.

    Flash- , , 8-16 . , .

    Flash- , , .

    NV-RAM, .

  • D-Link

    29

    . , , . . , , , , . D-Link D-View.

    21 RMON

    22

  • D-Link

    30

    ,

    : ,

    - , . . , . , , . ;

    , - , , , ;

    , ( ). , , . ;

    , .

  • D-Link

    31

    23

    :

    ; ; .

    . . OSI, . OSI , . , , , , .

    . , , . , , , .

    , .

  • D-Link

    32

    , , . , :

    , ;

    ; (, 100Base-TX

    1000Base-T);

    .

    . / . :

    ( ) ;

    (); ;

    .

  • D-Link

    33

    D-Link

    D-Link. D-Link . , .

    , . .

    :

    DES (D-Link Ethernet Switch) - D-Link 10/100 ;

    DGS (D-Link Gigabit Switch) - D-Link 1000 , X-Stack;

    DXS (D-Link X-Stack Switch) - D-Link 1000 X-Stack 10;

    DEM (D-Link Ethernet Module) - GBIC SFP DXS;

    DPS (D-Link Power Switch) - .

    - , : 10 ; 12 ; 13 -

    ; 15 -

    ; 21 2-

    ; 32 2- ; 33 3- ; 35 2-

    Single IP Management; 38 - 3-

    Single IP Management; 65 3-

    Single IP Management. . :

    D (Desktop) - ; F FX FL (Fiber) - 100Base-FX ; G or SX (Gigabit) - 1000Base-T

    1000Base-SX; R (RackMount) - 19" (

    ), ( );

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    34

    M (Module) - ; S (Stack) - ; TG (Twisted Pair and GBIC) - UTP/STP GBIC ; T or TX or TP- Twisted Pair - UTP/STP 10

    10/100 1000 . , DGS-3324SR : DGS - 33 - 24 - 24 SR - ,

    .

    . .

    D-Link :

    DES-1005D/1008D/1016D/1024D 5/8/16/24- 10/100BASE-TX, , .

    24 DES-1008D

    DES-1018DG/1024DG , 16 22 10/100BASE-TX 2 1000BASE-T. Gigabit Ethernet 5.

    25 DES-1024DG

    DGS-1005D/08D/16D/24D Gigabit Ethernet , 5/8/16/24- 1000BASE-T .

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    35

    26 DGS-1016D

    DES-1226G DGS-12xxT Fast Gigabit Ethernet, 10/100 / 10/100/1000 / .

    DES-3226S/3326S/3326SR 2- 3- 24 10/100BASE-TX 1 Fast Gigabit Ethernet. , .

    DES-3526 DES-3550 Fast Ethernet 2- Single IP Management (SIM). 24 48 10/100BASE-TX 2 1000BASE-T/SFP Gigabit Ethernet . DES-3500 SIM, 3- , , .

    27 DES-3526 DES-3550

    .

    D-Link: DES-3226S/3326S/3326SR, DES-3250TG, DES-3350SR

    , , 24 48 10/100BASE-TX 2 10/100/1000/. DES-3226S/3326S 312 10/100BASE-TX 13 Gigabit Ethernet.

    DGS-3312SR Gigabit Ethernet 3- ,

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    36

    . 4 - 1000BASE-T/Mini GBIC (SFP) 2 . DGS-3312SR 12 DES-3226S , 288 10/100BASE-TX 12 Gigabit Ethernet, .

    28 DGS-3312SR

    DGS-3224TGR Gigabit Ethernet 2- , . 20 10/100/1000BASE-T 4 10/100/1000BASE-T /Mini GBIC (SFP) . , , VLAN , . 48/

    DGS-3324SR Gigabit Ethernet 3- xStack, . 20 1000BASE-T, 4 - 1000BASE-T/Mini GBIC (SFP) , 2 10 / . 88/.

    DGS-3324SRi Gigabit Ethernet 3- xStack 168 /. - , . DGS-3324SRi 16 1000BASE-T, 8 - 1000BASE-T/Mini GBIC (SFP) 6 10 / .

    DXS-3326GSR Gigabit Ethernet 3- 20 Mini GBIC (SFP), 4 - 1000BASE-T/ Mini GBIC (SFP) 2 10 / , 1 DEM-420X 2- 10GE XFP. Mini GBIC . (128/), 10 / DXS-

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    37

    3326GSR , .

    DXS-3350SR Gigabit Ethernet 3- 176 /. 44 SFP, 4 - 1000BASE-T/SFP, 2 10 / 1 DEM-420X 2- 10GE XFP. , ( mini-GBIC) DXS-3350SR . Metro Ethernet

    29 DXS-3350SR

    . :

    DGS-3324SR, DGS-3324SRi, DXS-3326GSR, DXS-3350SR Gigabit Ethernet 3- .

    DES-6000/6300 () 2- 3- , , . 10/100/1000/, , . 16 , 128 10/100BaseTX.

    DES-6500 () , c . DES-6500 9 , , , . . , . DES-6500 2- 3- ,

  • D-Link

    38

    , . DES-6500 160 /.

    30 D-Link

  • D-Link

    39

    ,

    .

    , Web- , (CLI), Telnet, SNMP, TFTP . D-Link DES-3226S, DES-3326SR, DES-3526, DES-3324SR, .

    . D-Link DxS-10xx.

    . , SNMP Telnet. DES-1226G DGS-1216T/1224T.

    Web, , Web-, .

    ( ). , , , D-Link . , .

    , ,

    . , . ( ), Ethernet ( Telnet Web-). . Ethernet, IP-.

    Ethernet Ethernet , , UTP 5, 5 6 Gigabit Ethernet. D-Link

  • D-Link

    40

    (MDI/MDI-X), ( ).

    31

    UTP 5, 5, 6 , . .

    32 ( -Uplink)

    . , . , , , . , , ( / ). ( ).

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    41

    D-Link , RS-232, , . Out-of-Band . , ( Ethernet). , .

    (, HyperTerminal Windows). , , :

    Baud rate: 9,600 Data width: 8 bits Parity: none Stop bits: 1 Flow Control: none

    ( , CLI):

    33

    , , DHS-3226 (. 34). , .

    34

  • D-Link

    42

    , Ctrl+R , .

    , . D-Link , Enter. , DES-3800:admin#.

    .

    35 CLI

  • D-Link

    43

    CLI. , , , , . ? Enter , .

    36 ?

    ? , . , config, :

    DES-3800:admin#config ? ( + ?) Enter.

    . TAB, .

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    44

    37 config

  • D-Link

    45

    1. .

    . . , : Admin User. Admin .

    create account admin/user

    ( / , ) : Enter a case-sensitive new password: Enter the new password again for confirmation: 0 15 .

    Success.

    Admin (Username) dlink:

    38

    , :

    DES-3800:admin# config account

    39 dlink

    : DES-3800:admin# show account

  • D-Link

    46

    40

    , delete account .

    41 dlink

    . D-Link!

    2. IP-.

    web- Telnet, IP- , . IP- DHCP BOOTP , CLI:

    DES-3800:admin# config ipif System dhcp

    DES-3800:admin# config ipif System ipaddress xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/yy

    xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx IP-, yy CIDR , /24 /30), System- .

    42 IP-

    3. .

  • D-Link

    47

    D-Link (). , .

    D-Link config ports.

    10/, , 1 3 (. 43).

    43

    show ports . show ports.

    44 "show ports" 1-5 8

    4. NVRAM. save.

    45 NVRAM

    5. reboot.

    46

  • D-Link

    48

    reset.

    47

    6. . (

    ) show switch.

    48

  • D-Link

    49

    Web-

    D-Link Web- , (GUI), -, .

    Web- , , ..

    TCP/IP 80.

    , , :

    IP- , :

    DES-3800:admin #config ipif System ipaddress xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/yy , xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx IP-, yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy IP-

    : DES-3800:admin#show ipif Web-,

    IP- , (. 49)

    49 Web-

  • D-Link

    50

    , , , , , , . , , , . , :

    VLAN; Spanning Tree IEEE 802.1d, 802.1w, 802.1s; IEEE 802.3ad LACP

    Ethernet; IEEE 802.3ad LACP; QoS; ,

    IEEE 802.1 Port Security; ; SNMP .

  • D-Link

    51

    VLAN .

    , , . ( "-") , ( ). , . , ARP, BOOTP DHCP, , - . , . , ( ) - (Virtual LAN, VLAN).

    , , , . , MAC- , - , . , , , . , , .

    VLAN : . VLAN

    , ;

    VLAN , , ;

    VLAN , , , .

    VLAN

    VLAN: VLAN VLAN MAC-. VLAN

    IEEE 802.1Q

  • D-Link

    52

    VLAN

    VLAN , VLAN, , . , , , VLAN. .

    50 VLAN

    VLAN : .

    , , , VLAN .

    . - , VLAN, VLAN (VLAN ID) .

    , VLAN (, VLAN ) (VLAN ) VLAN. , VLAN , .

    VLAN. , , ( ISO/OSI). VLAN , , IP (. 51).

  • D-Link

    53

    51 VLAN ,

    , VLAN . , . : , VLAN 3.

    VLAN MAC-

    , , -. . , . - , , - .

    MAC-, ( ), -

    MAC- - , VLAN 1000 . , MAC- , , .

  • D-Link

    54

    52 VLAN -

    VLAN IEEE 802.1Q

    . VLAN , .

    IEEE 802.1Q Ethernet, VLAN .

    , VLAN , . :

    VLAN , , IEEE 802.1Q. VLAN 802.1Q- .

    (Spanning Tree) . Spanning Tree , , . . , ,

  • D-Link

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    , . Spanning Tree , , .

    VLAN 802.1Q VLAN , .

    , , - .

    . , VLAN, . , VLAN, , . IEEE 802.1Q.

    , VLAN , , .

    IEEE 802.1Q

    Tagging ( ) IEEE 802.1Q VLAN .

    Untagging 802.1Q VLAN .

    Ingress port ( ) - , , VLAN.

    Egress port ( ) , , , .

    tagged untagged.

    untagging() VLAN, Ethernet. tagging() VLAN , IEEE 802.1Q, Spanning Tree.

    VLAN 802.1Q

    3 :

    - VLAN;

    - ;

  • D-Link

    56

    - , .

    53 IEEE 802.1Q

    IEEE 802.1Q VLAN

    Ethernet IEEE 802.1Q (. 54). Ethernet . 2 08100 , IEEE 802.1Q/802.1p. 2 :

    3 ( 0 7, 7- ), IEEE 802.1;

    1 Canonical Format Indicator (CFI), (Token Ring, FDDI), Ethernet;

    12- VLAN - VLAN ID (VID), , VLAN .

  • D-Link

    57

    VID 12 , 4096 VLAN.

    4 .

    .

    54 Ethernet

    , Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC).

    Port VLAN ID

    ( IEEE 802.1Q VID) , IEEE 802.1Q, VLAN. VLAN ( , - IEEE 802.1Q).

    IEEE 802.1Q. tag-unaware ( ). , IEEE 802.1Q, tag-aware ( ).

    IEEE 802.1Q VLAN VLAN MAC-. Port VLAN ID (PVID) - VLAN- . , PVID , , ( ). PVID , , PVID , .

    PVID VLAN (, VLAN ). , VLAN ( ).

  • D-Link

    58

    IEEE 802.1Q , PVID. VLAN, VLAN PVID = 1.

    , , , PVID VID . PVID VID, , VLAN.

    PVID , . PVID , VLAN , .

    VID, Ethernet. VID , , VID , . VID , . , VLAN, , , VLAN .

    PVID VID , , , .

    (. 55): 1 VLAN 1 PVID=1. , 3 ( ), , , , 3 VLAN 1, , VLAN. 3 VLAN 1, . , 1 VLAN 1, .. PVID=1. 3, PVID=3 VLAN 1, VLAN, VLAN 1, , PVID 1.

  • D-Link

    59

    55 VLAN 802.1Q

    , , , ? , . , .

    Tagged Untagged

    , IEEE 802.1Q, tagged () untagged ().

    , tagged, VID, VLAN . , , VLAN. VLAN , IEEE 802.1Q, .

    , untagged, 802.1Q . VLAN 802.1Q, . , VLAN (, PVID ). untagging , IEEE 802.1Q, , .

  • D-Link

    60

    56

    57

    58 ,

  • D-Link

    61

    59 ,

    , VLAN, ingress port ( ). VLAN .

    VLAN, , VLAN. , . , , VLAN. , . VLAN, .

    VLAN, VID, PVID ( - tagged). , VLAN ( VID). , . .

    ingress filtering ( ) , VLAN, .

  • D-Link

    62

    VLAN CLI

    VLAN VID = 1, DEFAULT_VLAN. DEFAULT_VLAN. VLAN VLAN ( DEFAULT_VLAN) , VLAN.

    CLI , , (. 1).

    1 VLAN

    create vlan

    tag advertisement

    VLAN

    delete vlan VLAN config vlan

    add [tagged|untagged|forbidden] advertisement [enable|disable]

    VLAN

    config vlan

    delete

    VLAN

    config gvrp

    | all state [enable | disable] ingress_checking [enable | disable] acceptable_frame [tagged_only | admit_all] pvid }

    GVRP

    enable gvrp GVRP disable gvrp GVRP show vlan VLAN

    show gvrp GVRP enable double_vlan

    QinQ VLAN

    disable double_vlan

    QinQ VLAN

    create double_vlan

    spvid tpid

    QinQ VLAN

    config double_vlan

    add [uplink | access] delete tpid

    QinQ VLAN

    show double_vlan

    QinQ VLAN

    delete double_vlan

    QinQ VLAN

    1. 1-5 DEFAULT_VLAN config vlan default delete 1-5

    60 VLAN

  • D-Link

    63

    2. VLAN . VLAN v1 VID

    2 create vlan v1 tag 2

    61 VLAN

    3. VLAN. 1 5 VLAN v1

    config vlan v1 add tagged 1-5

    62 VLAN

    4. VLAN .

    63 VLAN

    , 1-5 , Member ports, , Current Tagged ports.

  • D-Link

    64

    VLAN

    ,

    -, D-Link 2- Asymmetric VLAN. , VLAN 802.1Q ( ) , . VLAN 2- . . , VLAN , (. 64). , , .

    64 VLAN

    IEEE 802.1Q VLAN( VLAN) VLAN , . VLAN , VLAN-. VLAN , . , ( ) . , , VLAN, , , , , (PVID).

  • D-Link

    65

    VLAN - IGMP Snooping .

    VLAN, PVID

    , VLAN . , VLAN . VLAN .

    VLAN CLI (. 2).

    2 Asymmetric VLAN

    enable asymmetric_vlan

    VLAN. PVID , VLAN .

    disable asymmetric_vlan

    VLAN. Asymmetric VLAN

    show asymmetric_vlan Asymmetric VLAN

  • D-Link

    66

    1. VLAN

    65 VLAN

    VLAN V1: 1-8, untagged - VLAN V2: 9-16, untagged VLAN2 ( ) VLAN V3: 17-24, untagged VLAN3 ( ) :

    1. VLAN V2 V3 VLAN V1;

    2. VLAN V2 V3 - ;

    3. V2 V3 . 1. VLAN enable asymmetric_vlan

    66 Asymmetric VLAN

  • D-Link

    67

    2. VLAN show asymmetric_vlan

    67 Asymmetric VLAN

    3. VLAN V2 V3 create vlan

    68 VLAN

    4. VLAN. 1 16 VLAN V2, 1-8 17-24 VLAN V3. config vlan

    69 VLAN

    5. GVRP (Group VLAN Registration Protocol) VLAN config gvrp

  • D-Link

    68

    70 GVRP

  • D-Link

    69

    2. VLAN

    71 VLAN

    VLAN V1: 1 1-4, 2 1-4, untagged - 1 5-8, 2 5-8, tagged

    VLAN V2: 1 9-16, 2 9-16, untagged VLAN2 ( ) VLAN V3: 1 17-24, 2 17-24,

    untagged VLAN3 ( ) :

    1. VLAN V2 V3 - VLAN V1;

    2. V2 V3 .

  • D-Link

    70

    ( , ).

    1. VLAN enable asymmetric_vlan

    72 Asymmetric VLAN

    2. VLAN show asymmetric_vlan

    73 Asymmetric VLAN

    3. VLAN V2 V3 create vlan

    74 VLAN

    4. 5-8 VLAN.

    75 VLAN

  • D-Link

    71

    5. VLAN V2 V3 . 1-4 9-16 VLAN V2, 1-4

    17-24 VLAN V3. .

    76 VLAN v2 v3

  • D-Link

    72

    . :

    Spanning Tree;

    , .

    . (Port Trunking) -

    ( Link Aggregation). , .

    STP (Spanning Tree ), , . , , .

    77

  • D-Link

    73

    . . , , , . , .

    . , OSI. , , - , - , . , - . . , .. . D-Link 6 :

    mac_source - ; mac_destination - ; mac_source_dest - - ; ip_source IP- ; ip_destination IP- ; ip_source_dest IP- .

  • D-Link

    74

    78

    mac_source_dest

    , - .

    , - -, , . . ( 1 ), .

    D-Link DES-3226S, DES-3526, DES-3350SR, DGS-3324SR : . ( ), . IEEE 802.3ad, (Link Aggregation Control Protocol) , . , LACP . , , , . LACP

  • D-Link

    75

    . , LACP, - . LACP .

    IEEE 802.3ad Ethernet-, , , Gigabit Ethernet ( 8 ).

  • D-Link

    76

    CLI

    , Ethernet (. 3).

    3 Link Aggregation

    create link_aggregation

    group_id {type[lacp/static]}

    ,

    delete link_aggregation

    group_id

    config link_aggregation

    group_id master_port ports state [enabled|disabled]

    config link_aggregation algorithm

    mac_source mac_destination mac_source_dest ip_source ip_destination ip_source_dest

    show link_aggregation

    group_id algorithm

    config lacp_ports mode [active|passive] LACP show lacp_ports {}

    LACP

  • D-Link

    77

    1.

    79 C

    1. create link_aggregation group_id 2 type static.

    80

    2. , - config link_aggregation algorithm mac_source

    81

    3. . 2, 4, 6 8 1, 2 config link_aggregation group_id 1 master_port 2 ports 2,4,6,8 state enable

    82

  • D-Link

    78

    4. show link_aggregation

    83

    5. 1 2 .

    6. . 1, 3, 5 7 1, 3 config link_aggregation group_id 1 master_port 1 ports 1,3,5,7 state enable

    84 B

  • D-Link

    79

    2. IEEE 802.3ad4

    85

    1. 2- ( ) create link_aggregation group 1 type LACP

    86

    2. , - config link_aggregation algorithm mac_source_dest

    87

    3. . 1-4 1, 5-8 2

    4 LACP, IEEE

    802.3ad.

  • D-Link

    80

    config link_aggregation group_id 1 master_port 1 ports 1-4 state enable

    88

    4. 1-8 Active config lacp_port 1-8 mode active

    89

    5. show link_aggregation

    90

    6. LACP show lacp_port 1-8

  • D-Link

    81

    91

    7. create link_aggregation group 1 type LACP

    92

    8. . 1-4 1 1, 1 config link_aggregation group_id 1 master_port 1 ports 1-4 state enable

    93 B C

    Passive, .

    ! 1. LACP,

    LACP. LACP, Static, .

    2. IEEE 802.3ad , , 802.3ad Static.

  • D-Link

    82

    Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1d) ,

    , Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) . , . Ethernet, , . , , , Ethernet.

    , . , . , , , , :

    ; ; .

    . , , 1, . , .

    94

    , . ,

  • D-Link

    83

    . , , .

    , . . , .

    STP STA (Spanning Tree Algorithm).

    STA .

    , STP . - Spanning Tree ( ). .

    STP. STA ,

    . 8- , 2- : 2- , 6 - . , , -. , .

    (root switch), . . , , , 32768 (8000h). , -. , . , ( ), , .

    STP (root port) .

    , .

    STP .

    (designated port). , . ,

  • D-Link

    84

    (designated bridge) . , , . . , . .

    . , , , . , , . .

    STA (Path Cost) . .

    4 IEEE 802.1d.

    4 IEEE 802.1d

    4 / 250 100-1000 1-65535 10 / 100 50-600 1-65535 16 / 62 40-400 1-65535 100 / 19 10-60 1-65535 1 / 4 3-10 1-65535 10 / 2 1-5 1-65535

    . , , - BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Unit).

    BPDU , :

    , ;

    - ( );

    ; BPDU

    , , Ethernet. BPDU

    ( 1-4). ( ) , BPDU

  • D-Link

    85

    (Max Age), .

    95 BPDU

    BPDU (. 95): STA - 2 .

    STA, ;

    STP 1 ; BPDU - 1 . BPDU -

    BPDU, , , BPDU , , ,

  • D-Link

    86

    - , , ;

    - 1 . , - ;

    - 8 ; - 2 ; - 8 ; - 2 ; - 2 . 0.5

    , . BPDU , ;

    - 2 . BPDU , , ;

    hello ( ), BPDU ;

    - 2 . . , .

    BPDU (. 96)

    : STA - 2 ; STP 1 ; BPDU - 1

    .

    96 BPDU

  • D-Link

    87

    STP

    3 ,

    (. 97). , . , - LAN1 . , , , . B . , . , A . , . STP B.

    97 Spanning Tree

    , . BPDU ( hello), , 0, , BPDU.

    BPDU, , , BPDU,

  • D-Link

    88

    . , BPDU, , .

    . , - , .

    (. 97). A ( ) BPDU, 0. B BPDU, Port 1 (4) , BPDU (0). B 4 BPDU 4 Port 3 Port 2.

    C BPDU B, 23 (4 + 19). C BPDU Port 1. BPDU 0 C 4 ( Port 1 4). C . C Port 1 , . C 4 .

    Port 1 4.

  • D-Link

    89

    98 Spanning Tree

    , . , . , , . , STP .

    , .

    Port 1 ( 4). , Port 1 . Port 1 ( 4). , Port 2 . Port 3 Port 2 , 23. STP . (20) (30),

  • D-Link

    90

    Port 2 . Port 3 (. 98).

    , (. 99):

    1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. ; 5. .

    99 STP

    Blocking - ( ) . BPDU. .

    Listening () - , BPDU. , BPDU , (, ). , , .

    Learning () . . STA, BPDU . , , .

  • D-Link

    91

    Forwarding () - . , BPDU.

    Disable () . STP, . Blocking.

    BPDU, . ( 20 ) BPDU, .

    D-Link Rapid STP (IEEE 802.1w), STP ( 1 ).

  • D-Link

    92

    Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)

    D-Link Spanning Tree Protocol, Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), IEEE 802.1w , IEEE 802.1d STP. RSTP , STP, .

    IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) IEEE 802.1d STP. STP, , , 3- , Ethernet.

    , 802.1w Path Cost (. 5).

    5 IEEE 802.1w

    STP 802.1d RSTP 802.1w

    , . RSTP Disabled, Blocking Listening, STP Discarding (), .

    100 STP 802.1d RSTP 802.1w

  • D-Link

    93

    6 STP RSTP

    STP

    -?

    RSTP

    DISABLE Disabled Discarding (Disabled) DISABLE Enabled Discarding (Disabled) BLOCKING Enabled Discarding (Alternate,

    Backup) LISTENING Enabled Discarding (Root,

    Designated) LEARNING Enabled Learning (Root,

    Designated) FORWARDING Enabled Forwarding (Root,

    Designated) RSTP

    . : (Root Port); (Designated Port); (Alternate Port); (Backup Port).

    ,

    ( ) .

    101

    , BPDU , .

  • D-Link

    94

    102

    .

    RSTP 2 (Alternate) (Backup), STP .

    .

    103

    , . , ( ).

  • D-Link

    95

    104

    . , RSTP, , . , . , RSTP : (edge port) - (point-to-point , P2P).

    (Edge) , , . , . , , , . , BPDU.

    P2P , , . RSTP , , 2, , .

    IEEE 802.1w

    (Root) BPDU (. 105). BPDU, . (sync).

  • D-Link

    96

    105 802.1w

    , (forwarding).

    106 802.1w

  • D-Link

    97

    . BPDU, (. 106).

    . .

    ( ). , .

    , D (. 107).

    107 802.1w

    1 D . , BPDU .

    , . RSTP (acknowledgement), . (listening) (learning).

  • D-Link

    98

    /

    108

    in-sync, :

    (

    discarding ); .

    109

  • D-Link

    99

    1. RSTP

    . , , STP (IEEE 802.1d). RSTP , :

    TC While hello , ;

    -, ;

    TC While , BPDU, , . , BPDU .

    2. BPDU ,

    : -

    , , ;

    TC While BPDU (RSTP TCN BPDU, , -).

    110

    BPDU .

  • D-Link

    100

    IEEE 802.1d/IEEE 802.1w

    RSTP , STP , , BPDU IEEE 802.1d. , ( ) . , RSTP.

    , , . , (Migration delay timer), hello. , (STP RSTP) , . , , BPDU. , BPDU , , .

    , , (. 111) RSTP. . , STP. 802.1d BPDU RSTP , BPDU IEEE 802.1d.

    111 STP RSTP

    BPDU , 802.1d. , BPDU (. 112).

  • D-Link

    101

    112 RSTP STP

    , , , STP , RSTP , , . , , . IEEE 802.1d, TCN BPDU , .

    IEEE 802.1d IEEE 802.1w (MessageAge). IEEE 802.1d MessageAge - , 1 . IEEE 802.1w, 1/16 MaxAge 1, (MaxAge ).

    : ((MessageAge+HelloTime)>=MaxAge) , MaxAge 20 Hellotime

    2, 18 (Bridge hop) , , , 37.

    STP 802.1d RSTP 802.1w

    : STP 802.1d: 30 . RSTP 802.1w: 5 . : STP 802.1d: 7 RSTP 802.1w: 18 (37 )

  • D-Link

    102

    STP CLI

    STP Rapid STP CLI (. 7).

    7 STP RSTP

    config stp

    maxage hellotime forwarddelay priority fdpdu [enable|disable] txholdcount version [rstp|stp]

    STP

    config stp ports cost priority migrate [yes|no] edge [true|false] p2p [true|false|auto] state [enable|disable]

    enable stp STP disable stp STP show stp STP show stp ports STP

    1. STP () enable stp:

    113 STP

    2. STP : (path cost) 19, (priority) 16, (state) enabled 1-5 config stp ports 1-5 cost 19 priority 16 state enabled:

    114 STP

    3. STP : maxage 18 hellotime 4 config stp maxage 18 hellotime 4:

    115 STP

  • D-Link

    103

    4. STP show stp:

    116 STP

    6. STP show stp ports:

    117

  • D-Link

    104

    (QoS)

    (IEEE 802.1)

    , . , . , , . , , , 10 .

    , .

    , , , / :

    (best effort service). . Qos .

    (differentiated service). . QoS ( , , ). CoS (Class of Service). . , . . , .

    (guaranteed service). . . , Frame Relay RSVP TCP/IP. , .

  • D-Link

    105

    . , , Ethernet , - . - . , . , - , , .

    IEEE 802.1. IEEE 802.1Q. Ethernet, . , , 3 . IEEE 802.1, . , , . , IEEE 802.1, .

    , , CoS, , , . . (packet classification) , .

    D-Link

    . , :

    IEEE 802.1; TOS, IP-

    (DSCP); I-; TCP/UDP.

    , CoS (, DES-3226S 4 CoS , DES-3828 8 ). , , , , , (Weighted Round Robin, WRR).

    CoS (. 118). 1 2

  • D-Link

    106

    Q0, 0 3 Q1, 4 5 Q2, 6 7 Q3.

    , 0, Q1. - Q0 1 2. ( P0 P1 Q0, P2 P3 Q1) , Q0. . D-Link 2 : (Strict Priority Queuing) (Weighted Round Robin).

    , , . , . WRR , . , , . : 0 255. : 0 255 ( 16 ).

    118

  • D-Link

    107

    CLI

    CLI (. 8).

    8 IEEE 802.1p

    config scheduling

    max_packet max_latency

    show scheduling config 802.1p user_priority

    IEEE 802.1p , .

    show 802.1p user_priority

    config 802.1p default_priority

    all

    , .

    show 802.1p default_priority

    IEEE 802.1, .

    1. . Q0 100 150 config scheduling 0 max_packet 100 max_latency 150:

    119 Q0

    2. show scheduling:

    120

    3. 1 Q3 config 802.1p user_priority 1 3:

  • D-Link

    108

    121

    4. show 802.1p user_priority:

    122

    5. . , 1-5 , 5 config 802.1p default_priority 1-5 5:

    123 1-5 5

    6. , 1-10 show 802.1p default_priority 1-10:

    124

  • D-Link

    109

    , .

    125

    CLI

    CLI (. 9).

    9 Traffic control

    config bandwidth_control

    rx_rate no_limit tx_rate no_limit

    show bandwidth_control

    1. 1 8 , 1 / config bandwidth_control 1-8 tx_rate 1000:

    126

  • D-Link

    110

    2. show bandwidth_control:

    127

  • D-Link

    111

    Port Security

    ,

    MAC- , MAC-. , -.

    -, , MAC-, , .

    -, MAC- , MAC--, . D-Link -, 256 .

    MAC-, MAC- , , .

    , , . , MAC- ( , ) , , . , , .

  • D-Link

    112

    Port Security CLI

    Port Security CLI (. 10) .

    10 Port Security

    config port_security ports

    [| all ] {admin_state [enable | disable] |max_learning_addr lock_address_mode[Permanent| DeleteOnTimeout|DeleteOnReset]}

    , portlist

    clear port_security_entry

    vlan_name mac_address port

    , VLAN, MAC .

    Show port_security {ports }

    1. Port Security 9-16, - 5 - config port_security ports 9-16 admin_state enable max_learning_addr 5 lock_address_mode DeleteOnTimeout :

    128 Port Security

    2. Port Security show port_security ports 7-13:

    129 Port Security

  • D-Link

    113

    3. - Port Security clear port_security_entry port 4:

    130 Port Security

  • D-Link

    114

    2. ,

    , , . . VLAN, .

    131 Traffic Segmentation

    (. 131). (PC2 - PC24) uplink, . :

    ETTH (Ethernet To The Home) ; .

  • D-Link

    115

    Traffic Segmentation CLI

    Traffic Segmentation CLI (. 11).

    11 Traffic Segmentation

    config traffic_segmentation

    forward_list null

    show traffic_segmentation

    1. 19 22 , 23 24 config traffic_segmentation 19-22 forward_list 23-24:

    132 Traffic Segmentation

    2. , show traffic_segmentation 19-24:

    133 Traffic Segmentation

  • D-Link

    116

    IEEE 802.1 IEEE 802.1

    / , (. 134). (RADIUS) , , , .

    , , IEEE 802.1 Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL) , . , .

    134 IEEE 802.1x

    802.1 , .

    135 ()

    , . 802.1x, , Microsoft Windows XP.

  • D-Link

    117

    136

    . . RADIUS /, RADIUS. , .

    137

    ( (authenticator)) , . , , , . RADIUS, EAP .

    , .

    , EAPOL-start, . , , .

  • D-Link

    118

    , .

    . , , (One-Time-Password, OTP) RADIUS.

    138

    802.1 -, :

    802.1x MAC- /, MAC-, . , MAC-;

    802.1x , , , , , .

    , . . IEEE 802.1. , , .

  • D-Link

    119

    , IEEE 802.1.

    , IEEE 802.1, IEEE 802.1, . , , .

    , IEEE 802.1 , IEEE 802.1, , EAPOL-start. , . , , , , .

    , IEEE 802.1, , . , , . , . , - .

    , EAPOL-logoff, .

    (up) (down), EAPOL-logoff, .

    IEEE 802.1

    IEEE 802.1 : (Trunk port); EtherChannel , IEEE 802.1

    , EtherChannel.

  • D-Link

    120

    IEEE 802.1 CLI

    : IEEE 802.1x, ( IEEE 802.1x Window XP).

    Radius: Windows NT, Windows 2000 Server Radius Server Service,

    . :

    IEEE 802.1x ; IEEE 802.1x ; Radius.

    IEEE 802.1x CLI

    (. 12). 12 IEEE 802.1

    enable 802.1x IEEE

    802.1 disable 802.1x

    IEEE 802.1

    show 802.1x [auth_state | auth_configuration] {ports }

    IEEE 802.1x

    config 802.1x capability

    ports |all authenticator none

    IEEE 802.1 :

    config 802.1x auth_parameter

    ports |all default direction [both|in] port_control [force_unauth|auto|force_auth] quiet_period tx_period supp_timeout server_timeout max_req reauth_period enable_reauth [enable|disable]

    IEEE 802.1x . Default - IEEE 802.1x

    config 802.1x auth_mode

    [port_based |mac_based]

    IEEE 802.1x: -

    config 802.1x init config 802.1x init [port_based ports [] |mac_based ports [|all] {mac_address }]

    IEEE 802.1x -

    config 802.1x reauth

    [port_based ports [] |mac_based ports [|all] {mac_address }]

    -

    config radius add

  • D-Link

    121

    key default auth_port acct_port

    RADIUS

    config radius delete

    RADIUS.

    config radius ipaddress key auth_port acct_port

    RADIUS.

    show radius RADIUS .

    1. IEEE 802.1x enable 802.1x:

    139 802.1x

    2. IEEE 802.1 19-24 show 802.1x auth_state ports 19-24:

    140 802.1x 19-24

    3. IEEE 802.1x 19 24 config 802.1x capability ports 19-24 authenticator:

    141 802.1x

    4. IEEE 802.1 19 show 802.1x auth_configuration ports 19:

  • D-Link

    122

    142 802.1x 19

    5. 802.1 19-24 config 802.1x reauth mac_based ports 19-24:

    143 802.1x 19-24

    6. IEEE 802.1 config 802.1x auth_mode port_based:

    144 802.1x

    7. Radius, IP- 192.168.0.100, dlink config radius add 1 192.168.0.100 key dlink default :

    145 RADIUS

  • D-Link

    123

    Access Control Lists (ACL) (Access Control Lists)

    . , , . , , , , .

    , (ACL) .

    D-Link : Ethernet IP. - , VLAN, IP-, .

    , (Profile ID). , , . , , . , , .

    : : Ethernet IP; ; , ,

    Access Profile Mask ; Access Profile Rule .

    , . , , DES-3226S 10 , 50 (50 10 ), DES-3526 9 800 .

    ( Web-)

    2 : -

    , IP .

    : , ( ).

  • D-Link

    124

    146

    1: (Access Profile Mask) 1. Web- . Configuration/ Access Profile Table.

    2. Add Access Profile Table. . , . , .

    3. :

    ) (Profile ID): , Auto Assign. 1 255;

    ) (Type): Ethernet, IP, PacketContentMask. (. 147, 148 149). Ethernet, , 2- . IP, , IP . PacketContentMask 80- .

    ) VLAN: , , VLAN .

    Ethernet:

    4. MAC (Source MAC Mask): MAC MAC MAC .

    5. MAC (Destination MAC Mask): MAC MAC MAC .

    6. 802.1p: , , IEEE 802.1p .

    7. Ethernet Type: , Ethernet .

  • D-Link

    125

    147 MAC

    IP: 4. IP (Source IP Mask): IP - IP IP .

    5. IP (Destination IP Mask): IP - IP IP .

    6. DSCP: , , DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) .

    7. Protocol: , (ICMP, IGMP, TCP, UDP) . TCP UDP . , , . Source Port Mask Ox TCP/UDP (hex 0x0-0xffff). Destination Port Mask Ox TCP/UDP (hex 0x0-0xffff).

    8. PacketContentMask:

    9. Offset: . 80 5 16 .

    2: .

    4. Modify;

    5. C , Add. , , , Delete;

    6. ;

    7. ;

  • D-Link

    126

    8. Permit () Deny ().

    148 IP

    149 PacketContentMask

  • D-Link

    127

    150

    151

    , , IEEE 802.1p , . priority . 0, 7.

  • D-Link

    128

    Access Control Lists (ACL) CLI

    ACL CLI DES-3526 (. 13).

    13 ACL

    create access_profile

    ethernet vlan source_mac destination_mac 802.1p ethernet_type ip vlan source_ip_mask destination_ip_mask dscp

    icmp type code

    igmp {type} tcp src_port_mask dst_port_mask flag_mask all urg ack psh rst syn Fin udp src_port_mask dst_port_mask protocol_id_mask user_define_mask packet_content_mask offset_0-15 offset_16-31 offset_32-47 offset_48-63

    , . , create access_profile, , , .

  • D-Link

    129

    offset_64-79 profile_id

    delete access_profile

    Profile_id

    .

    config access_profile profile_id

    profile_id add access_id ethernet vlan source_mac destination_mac

    802.1p ethernet_type ip vlan source_ip destination_ip dscp icmp type code igmp {type }

    tcp src_port dst_port flag_mask all urg ack psh rst syn fin

    udp src_port dst_port protocol_id user_define packet_content_mask offset_0-15 offset_16-31

    , . , .

  • D-Link

    130

    offset_32-47 offset_48-63 offset_64-79 port permit priority replace_priority replace_dscp_with deny delete access_id

    show access_profile

    profile_id access_id

    show access_profile.

    152 ACL

  • D-Link

    131

    1. ACL Ethernet

    153 Ethernet

    -. (. 153):

    -, : 00-50-ba-00-00-19; 1 , : 00-50-ba-6b-18-c8; .

    ( CLI). : MAC- = MAC-

    = , ( , )

    MAC- = , . ,

    1. 00-50-ba-6b-18-c8 , Ethernet- create access_profile ethernet source_mac FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF destination_mac FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF profile_id 10:

  • D-Link

    132

    154 10

    , 1 , -:

    155 1

    2. 00-50-ba-00-00-19. create access_profile ethernet destination_mac FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF profile_id 20:

    156 20

    config access_profile profile_id 20 add access_id 21 ethernet destination_mac 00-50-BA-00-00-19 port 3-26 deny:

    157 - 00-50-BA-00-00-19

  • D-Link

    133

    2. ACL Ethernet

    -. (. 153):

    -, : 00-50-ba-00-00-19; PC1 , : 00-50-ba-6b-18-c8; .

    : MAC- = MAC-

    = , ( , )

    ,

    1. MAC 00-50-ba-6b-18-c8 , create access_profile ethernet source_mac FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF destination_mac FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF profile_id 10 config access_profile profile_id 10 add access_id 11 ethernet source_mac 00-50-BA-6B-18-C8 destination_mac 00-50-BA-00-00-19 port 1-26 deny:

    158 ACL

    2. , , ACL .

  • D-Link

    134

    3. ACL IP

    159 IP

    IP-. :

    - IP= 192.168.1.254/32; : 192.168.1.0/24; :

    192.168.1.1 - 192.168.1.63 ( 192.168.1.0/26); .

    :

    DestIP=192.168.1.254/32 SrcIP=192.168.1.0/26, ;

    DestIP=192.168.1.254/32 SrcIP=192.168.1.0/24, ;

    , .

    1. 192.168.1.1-192.168.1.63 192.168.1.254 create access_profile ip destination_ip_mask 255.255.255.255 source_ip_mask 255.255.255.192 profile_id 10:

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    160 IP

    2. 192.168.1.0/24 192.168.1.254. ACL create access_profile ip destination_ip_mask 255.255.255.255 source_ip_mask 255.255.255.0 profile_id 20 config access_profile profile_id 20 add access_id 21 ip destination_ip 192.168.1.254 source_ip 192.168.1.0 port 1-26 deny:

    161 ACL

    3. ACL , .

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    136

    4 IP 3-

    162 ACL 3-

    . 1 ( ) 2, 3 4. 2, 3 4 (. 162).

    : Dest. IP=192.168.1.x, ; Src. IP=192.168.1.x, ; DestIP=192.168.2.x SrcIP=192.168.2.x,

    ; DestIP=192.168.3.x SrcIP=192.168.3.x,

    ; DestIP=192.168.4.x SrcIP=192.168.4.x,

    ; .

    1. 192.168.1.x ACL create access_profile profile_id 10 ip destination_ip_mask 255.255.255.0 config access_profile profile_id 10 add access_id 11 ip destination_ip 192.168.1.0 port 1-12 permit:

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    163 ACL Net1

    2. 2,3 4 192.168.1.x, ACL create access_profile profile_id 11 ip source_ip_mask 255.255.255.0 config access_profile profile_id 11 add access_id 10 ip source_ip 255.255.255.0 port 1-12 deny:

    164 ACL Net1

    3. 192.168.2.x, 192.168.3.x 192.168.4.x, ACL create access_profile profile_id 12 ip source_ip_mask 255.255.255.0 destination_ip_mask 255.255.255.0; config access_profile profile_id 12 add access_id 10 ip source_ip 192.168.2.0 destination_ip 192.168.2.0 port 1-12 permit; config access_profile profile_id 12 add access_id 11 ip source_ip 192.168.3.0 destination_ip 192.168.3.0 port 1-12 permit; config access_profile profile_id 12 add access_id 13 ip source_ip 192.168.4.0 destination_ip 192.168.4.0 port 1-12 permit:

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    165 Net 2, Net3, Net4

    4. , ACL create access_profile profile_id 14 ip source_ip_mask 0.0.0.0 config access_profile profile_id 14 add access_id 5 ip source_ip 0.0.0.0 port 1-12 deny:

    166 ACL

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    139

    (Multicast)

    , . , , .

    ,

    .

    IP- . : . , , ( ) IGMP. IP, , .

    IP-, .

    IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, ). IP- D. , 224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255.

    IANA IP 224.0.0.0-224.0.0.255 . . 224.0.1.0-224.0.1.255 , .

    -

    , - - - . , .

    IP - IP . 24 . 01-00-05 Ethernet. 24 - .

  • D-Link

    140

    -, 25- ( ) 0, 23 IP- 23 - (. 167).

    167 IP- Ethernet

    5 1- IP-, . - 32 .

    , . .

    IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) . , IGMP- . IGMP IGMP- , , (. 168).

    IGMP v1

    1 IGMP IGMP-: ; .

    IGMP-, , . IGMP-, , , .

  • D-Link

    141

    IGMP-, .

    168 IGMP.

    IGMP v2

    2 IGMP IGMP-: ; 1; 2; .

    IGMP 2 IGMP 1. . (. 169). , , , . , . , , IGMP 1. .

  • D-Link

    142

    169 IGMP.

    2

    2- , - . , - , . , , (. 170)

    170

  • D-Link

    143

    : VLAN

    . , ;

    IGMP- (IGMP-snooping). IGMP- IGMP-, , 3- .

    IGMP- , . IGMP- , (. 171).

    IGMP- , 2- . , IGMP-, , . IGMP- . , IGMP- .

    171 IGMP Snooping

  • D-Link

    144

    IGMP- snooping CLI

    IGMP-snooping CLI (. 14).

    14 IGMP-Snooping

    config igmp_snooping

    all host_timeout router_timeout leave_timer state enable disable

    IGMP- snooping

    config igmp_snooping querier

    all query_interval max_response_time robustness_variable last_member_query_interval state enable| disable

    ,

    config router_ports add delete

    . , ..

    enable igmp snooping

    forward_mcrouter_only IGMP- snooping . forward_mcrouter_only , . , IP

    disable igmp snooping

    IGMP- snooping .

    show igmp snooping

    vlan

    IGMP-snooping

    show igmp snooping group

    vlan

    IGMP- snooping

    show router ports vlan static dynamic

  • D-Link

    145

    1. IGMP-snooping config igmp_snooping default host_timeout 250 state enable:

    172 IGMP-Snooping

    host_timeout - , . 260 .

    2. IGMP-snooping querier config igmp_snooping querier default query_interval 125 state enable:

    173 IGMP-Snooping querier

    3. IGMP-snooping enable igmp_snooping:

    174 IGMP-Snooping

    4. 25 config router_ports default add 25:

    175 router ports

    5. IGMP-snooping show igmp_snooping :

  • D-Link

    146

    176 IGMP-snooping

    6. , show igmp_snooping forwarding :

    177

    7. IGMP-snooping show igmp_snooping group :

  • D-Link

    147

    178 IGMP-Snooping

  • D-Link

    148

    :

    1. D-Link DES-3526, DES-3828 .

    2. D-Link. 3. . , , . .. ,

    .. . :, 2000. 4. , 3- .: .

    . .: , 2002. 5. IP.: . . .

    .: , 2003. 6. . http://www.routers.ru 7. IEEE

  • D-Link

    149

    . .

    (. 15). CLI , .

    15 CLI

    ,

    . [ ]

    . . |

    , . { }

    .

  • D-Link

    150

    .

    1

    10Base-F IEEE 802.3 Ethernet .

    10Base-T IEEE 802.3i Ethernet

    (" ").

    100Base-T IEEE 802.3us Ethernet

    100 / (" ").

    100Base-TX IEEE 802.3u Ethernet

    100 / 2- 5.

    100Base-FX IEEE 802.3u Ethernet

    100 / FDDI TP-PMD PMD ( ).

    10Gbase-ER 10G Ethernet,

    10 / 40 (25 ) 1550 .

    10Gbase-LR 10G Ethernet,

    10 / 10 (6 ) 1310 .

    10Gbase-SR 10G Ethernet,

    10 / 300 (990 ) 850 .

    A

    Access method . , . CSMA/CD (Ethernet) (Token Ring).

    Address . ,

    , .

  • D-Link

    151

    Address mask . , Internet . 32 Inetrnet . .

    Address resolution .

    (Network Layer) (media-specific) . . ARP.

    Agent . SNMP

    . - - ,

    . Aggregate link .

    . Application Layer . OSI,

    , .

    ARP(Address Resolution Protocol) .

    Internet, Internet () . ARP , IP-.

    B

    Backbone , , .

    Backplane .

    , .

    Bandwidth ,

    , . ().

    Bridge . ,

    . OSI .

    BPDU(Bridge Protocol Data Unit)

    . (Spanning Tree Protocol), .

  • D-Link

    152

    Broadcast . ,

    , . Ethernet.

    Bus topology . ,

    ( ), .

    C

    Channel . [] . : link, line, circuit facility

    Chassis .

    , . .

    CLI Command Line Interface , .

    .

    Client . (

    ), . Collision . Ethernet,

    . .

    Collision domain . Ethernet,

    , .

    CoS(Class of Service) . ,

    , . ToS.

    Crossover . (

    ) .

    CSMA/CD(Carrier sense multiple access/collision detection)

    . , , , . ,

  • D-Link

    153

    . , . , , . CSMA/CD Ethernet IEEE 802.3.

    Cut-through packet switching .

    , , , . , . .

    D

    Data Link Layer . 2 OSI, . , , , , . IEEE : LLC.

    Designated bridge . ,

    . DHCP(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

    . IP-.

    E EMI(Electromagnetic interference) .

    , - .

    Encapsulation . ,

    , (protocol data unit - PDU ) . Internet - , (IP), - (TCP), .

    Ethernet (),

    IEEE . IEEE 802.3. Ethernet 10 / CSMA/CD.

  • D-Link

    154

    Ethernet 10Base-T. Ethernet Fast Ethernet (100 /) Gigabit Ethernet (1000 /).

    Ethernet address Ethernet. 48- ,

    ( Ethernet) . 12 .

    ETTH (Ethernet to the Home) ETTH

    , Ethernet. , Ethernet .

    F

    Fault management . ISO . , .

    Fault tolerance .

    . , , ..

    Fiber optic cable . ,

    . Filtering .

    ( , ) . , .

    Flooding . ,

    , .

    Flow control . ,

    .

    Forwarding table . ,

    , . Frame .

    . MAC , . ,

  • D-Link

    155

    . , , , .

    Full duplex .

    - - .

    G

    GUI(Graphical User Interface) . , , () .

    H

    Half Duplex . . , , .

    I

    IEEE(Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) . , 1963 . 802 . 802 (Technical Committee for Computer Communications), 1980 . IEEE ANSI ISO.

    IEEE 802 IEEE 802. IEEE,

    . Ethernet, Token Ring, Wireless LAN.

    IEEE 802.3 IEEE CSMA/CD. IGMP(Internet Group Management Protocol)

    . , IP- .

    IP(Internet Protocol) IP- . TCP/IP,

    RFC 791 . .

  • D-Link

    156

    IP. .

    IP address IP-. IP - 32 (4 )

    , STD 5 (RFC 791) TCP/IP. IP- (network portion) (host portion) - . IP- . IPv6 128- , .

    L

    LAN(Local Area Network) . , . , , , .

    LLC(Logical Link Control)

    . , IEEE. , , , -. LLC- IEEE 802.2. IEEE 802.2 .

    M

    MAC(Media Access Control) . , IEEE. - .

    MAC address -. ,

    , . , . - 6 , IEEE. - .

    MAC address learning -.

    , -

  • D-Link

    157

    . , . . . - IEEE 802.1.

    MIB(Management Information Base) .

    , , SNMP. MIB- SNMP (, D-Link D -View) GUI-. MIB- () () .

    MTU(Maximum Transmission Unit)

    . ( ) , .

    Multicast .

    . (Destination address field).

    Multicast address . ,

    . Multicast group .

    IP-, IP-. Multicast router . ,

    IGMP- . , , IGMP- , . , .

    N

    Network . 1. ( ). 2. , ,

    , .

    Network Address . ,

    , . (protocol address).

  • D-Link

    158

    Network Layer . 3 OSI,

    , OSI. Node . , ,

    . NVRAM NonVolatile RAM, .

    , .

    P

    Packet . , , , . . 3 : ( , ..), , . 3 () OSI.

    PDU(Protocol Data Unit) . OSI

    . Physical Layer . 1 OSI.

    , , , .

    Ping (Packet INternet Groper) . -

    ICMP . , IP-.

    Port density . . Port security . ,

    . Proxy ARP(Proxy Address Resolution Protocol)

    . ARP, (, ) ARP .

    Q

    QoS(Quality of Service) . , .

  • D-Link

    159

    R

    RADIUS(Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) . IETF, , .

    Redundancy . ,

    . , .

    Redundant system . , ,

    , , , .

    Reliability .

    . , .

    RMON(Remote MONitoring) .

    MIB-, RFC 1271, . RMON , . , .

    Router . ,

    . .

    Routing .

    . RS-232 EIA 25-

    , (DTE) (DCE) .

    S

    Segment . 1. , ,

    . 2. LAN ,

    .

  • D-Link

    160

    3. , TCP .

    Session Layer . 5 OSI,

    . SNMP(Simple Network Management Protocol)

    . , TCP/IP. SNMP , , , .

    SOHO(Small Office, Home Office) .

    .

    Spanning Tree .

    . STA(Spanning Tree Algorithm)

    . , . STA.

    STP(Spanning Tree Protocol) .

    , . BPDU .

    Store and forward packet switching

    . , . CRC . , , (, ) . (cut-through packet switching).

    Switch . , ,

    . OSI.

    Switched LAN . .

    T

    Tag . , .

  • D-Link

    161

    TCP(Transmission Control Protocol) . , . TCP /IP.

    TCP/IP(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

    / Internet . , 1970- . .

    Telnet

    TCP/IP. Telnet , , .

    TFTP(Trivial File Transfer Protocol)

    . FTP, .

    Throughput . ,

    , , .

    Traffic segmentation . ,

    2. Transport Layer . 4 OSI,

    . Trap . (alarm message),

    , , . , , .

    Trunk .

    , . .

    U

    UDP (User Datagram Protocol) . , . TCP/IP. UDP .

  • D-Link

    162

    V

    VLAN(Virtual LAN) . , ( ), , , . VLAN .