Energy & ATP. Mrs. Stewart Honors Biology Central Magnet. Chemical Energy and ATP. The main chemical compound that cells use to store and release energy is called ATP (adenosine triphosphate ). Adenosine Triphosphate. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Energy & ATP
Energy & ATPMrs. StewartHonors BiologyCentral MagnetChemical Energy and ATPThe main chemical compound that cells use to store and release energy is called ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Adenosine TriphosphateAll energy must eventually be in the form of ATP in order for it to be used for cell metabolism. ATP is the energy "currency" of the cell. Why?
ATP is the only source of energy that the body can use.
Stored energy (e.g. fat, glycogen, creatine phosphate) must first be converted to ATP before the body can actually use it.
You bring 50 loads of laundry to a laundromat.
It will only take quarters.
It costs $5 in quarters per load
There is a change machine at the laundromat.
Are you going to carry $250 in quarters?
$1Glycogen, Blood Glucose
Storing EnergyATP holds energy in the bond between the second and third phosphate groupATP is like a fully charged batteryStores enough energy for 8-12 seconds of intense exercise.
EnergyThink Pair ShareQ: How is the energy in ATP released?A: Break bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphates
ATP vs. ADPATP has all 3 phosphate groupsFully charged battery Brief energy storageCan remove a phosphate group to release energy and form ADPADP has only 2 phosphate groupsPartially charged batteryCan add a phosphate group to make ATP
ATP AvailabilityMost cells only have enough ATP for a few seconds of activityWhy?Not good at storing energy over the long termGlucose stores 90 times the chemical energy of ATPCells generate ATP from ADP as needed by using the energy in foods (like glucose)$1 = glycogen/glucoseGlycogen/glucose is like having dollar bills that can be broken down to quarters in a change machine. Much greater capacity ($1) than carrying quarters. The human body stores ~350 g of glycogen, not enough to sustain long duration of exercise or a period of time without food.
$100 = Stored FatFat stores are the energy sources for rest and prolonged activity at lower levels of exertion. Breaking down fat is a SLOW process. Just like getting change for the $100 bill (in quarters) would take a while, mobilizing fat stores to be used to meet cellular energy demands also takes longer than using glucose or ATP.
VISA = ProteinWhen either carbohydrate intake or overall energy intake is low; proteolysis (the breakdown of protein mostly from lean muscle) provides energy for biologic work.
VISA: using protein as energy supplements the ATP, glycogen and fatty acids that provide the majority of the ATP.