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Firefighting design guidelines

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INTRODUCTION No building material is perfectly fire proof. Every building contains some materials (such as furniture clothing eatables etc.) which can either easily catch fire or which are vulnerable to fire. However,the endeavor of thearchitects and engineers should be to plan, design and construct the building in such a way that safety of occupants may be ensured to the maximum possible extent in the event of outbreak of fire in the building due to any reason whatsoever. The technical interpretation of fire safety of building is to convey the fire resistace of buildings in terms of hours when subjected to fire of known intensity. It should have structural time interval so that adequate protection to the occupants is afforded. A wider interpretation of fire safety may be deemed to cover the following aspects : Fire prevention and reduction of number of outbreaks of fire, Spread of fire, both internally and externally, Safe exit of any and all occupants in the event of an outbreak of fireFire extinguishing apparatus.HISTORY OF FIRE FIGHTINGHistory of firefighting The history of organized firefighting began in ancient Rome while under the rule of Augustus.[1] Prior to that, there is evidence of fire-fighting machinery in use in Ancient Egypt, including a water pump invented by Ctesibius of Alexandria in the third century BC which was later improved upon in a design by Hero Of Alexandria in the first century BC.[2]

Contents1 Rome2 Europe3 United States4 Modern development5 Firefighting todayROMEThe first Roman fire brigade of which we have any substantial history was created by Marcus Licinius Crassus. Marcus Licinius Crassus was born into a wealthy Roman family around the year 115 BC, and acquired an enormous fortune through (in the words of Plutarch) "fire and rapine." One of his most lucrative schemes took advantage of the fact that Rome had no fire department. Crassus filled this void by creating his own brigade500 men strongwhich rushed to burning buildings at the first cry of alarm. Upon arriving at the scene, however, the fire fighters did nothing while their employer bargained over the price of their services with the distressed property owner. If Crassus could not negotiate a satisfactory price, his men simply let the structure burn to the ground, after which he offered to purchase it for a fraction of its value. Augustus took the basic idea from Crassus and then built on it to form the Vigiles in AD 6[contradictory] to combat fires using bucket brigades and pumps, as well as poles, hooks and even ballistae to tear down buildings in advance of the flames. The Vigiles patrolled the streets of Rome to watch for fires and served as a police force. The later brigades consisted of hundreds of men, all ready for action. When there was a fire, the men would line up to the nearest water source and pass buckets hand in hand to the fire.Rome suffered a number of serious fires, most notably the fire on 19 July AD 64 and eventually destroyed two thirds of Rome.

EUROPEThis picture published in 1808 shows firefighters tackling a fire in London using hand-pumpedengines.

.In Europe, firefighting was quite rudimentary until the 17th century. In 1254, a royal decree of King Saint Louis of France created the so-called guet bourgeois ("burgess watch"), allowing the residents of Paris to establish their own night watches, separate from the king's night watches, to prevent and stop crimes and firesIn London suffered great fires in 798, 982, 989, 1212 and above all in 1666 (Great Fire of London). The Great Fire of 1666 started in a baker's shop on Pudding Lane, consumed about two square miles (5km) of the city, leaving tens of thousands homeless. Prior to this fire, London had no organized fire protection system. Afterwards, insurance companies formed private fire brigades to protect their clients property. Insurance brigades would only fight fires at buildings the company insured. These buildings were identified by fire insurance marks. The key breakthrough in firefighting arrived in the 17th century with the first fire engines. Manual pumps, rediscovered in Europe after 1500 (allegedly used in Augsburg in 1518 and in Nuremberg in 1657), were only force pumps and had a very short range due to the lack of hoses. German inventor Hans Hautsch improved the manual pump by creating the first suction and force pump and adding some flexible hoses to the pump. In 1672, Dutch artist,and inventor Jan Van der Heyden's workshop developed the fire hose. Constructed of flexible leather and coupled every 50 feet (15 m) with brass fittings. The length remains the standard to this day in mainland Europe whilst in the UK the standard length is either 23m or 25m. The fire engine was further developed by the Dutch inventor, merchant and manufacturer, John Lofting (16591742) who had worked with Jan Van der Heyden in Amsterdam. Lofting moved to London in or about 1688, became an English citizen and patented (patent number 263/1690) the "Sucking Worm Engine" in 1690. There was a glowing description of the firefighting ability of his device in The London Gazette of 17 March 1691, after the issue of the patent. The British Museum has a print showing Lofting's fire engine at work in London, the engine being pumped by a team of men. In the print three fire plaques of early insurance companies are shown, no doubt indicating that Lofting collaborated with them in firefighting. A later version of what is believed to be one of his fire engines has been lovingly restored by a retired firefighter, and is on show in Marlow Buckinghamshire where John Lofting moved in 1700. Patents only lasted for fourteen years and so the field was open for his competitors after 1704.Richard Newsham of Bray in Berkshire (just 8 miles from Lofting) produced a similar engine in 1725, patented it in America and cornered the market there.Pulled as a cart to the fire, these manual pumps were manned by teams of men and could deliver up to 160 gallons per minute (12 L/s) at up to 120 feet (36 m).UNITED STATES

Victor Pierson, Paul Poincy. Volunteer Firemen's Parade, March 4th 1872, representing the gathering of the New Orleans fire brigades around the statue of Henry Clay

In 1631 Boston's governor John Winthrop outlawed wooden chimneys and thatched roofs.[3] In 1648, the New Amsterdam governor Peter Stuyvesant appointed four men to act as fire wardens.[3] They were empowered to inspect all chimneys and to fine any violators of the rules. The city burghers later appointed eight prominent citizens to the "Rattle Watch" - these men volunteered to patrol the streets at night carrying large wooden rattles.[3] If a fire was seen, the men spun the rattles, then directed the responding citizens to form bucket brigades. On January 27, 1678 the first fire engine company went into service with its captain (foreman) Thomas Atkins.[3] In 1736 Benjamin Franklin established the Union Fire Company in Philadelphia.[3]George Washington was a volunteer firefighter in Alexandria, Virginia. In 1774, as a member of the Friendship Veterans Fire Engine Company, he bought a new fire engine and gave it to the town, which was its very first.[4] However the United States did not have government-run fire departments until around the time of the American Civil War. Prior to this time, private fire brigades compete with one another to be the first to respond to a fire because insurance companies paid brigades to save buildings.[citation needed] Underwriters also employed their own Salvage Corps in some cities. The first known female firefighter Molly Williams took her place with the men on the dragropes during the blizzard of 1818 and pulled the pumper to the fire through the deep snow.On April 1st of 1853 Cincinnati OH became the first professional fire department by being made up of 100% full-time, paid employees.In 2010, 70 percent of firefighters in the United States were volunteer. Only 5% of calls were actual fires. 65% were medical aid. 8% were false alarms.[5]The Chicago Fire Department used this White Motor Company truck from 1930 to 1941 MODERN DEVELOPMENT

The first fire brigades in the modern sense were created in France in the early 18th century. In 1699, a man with bold commercial ideas, Franois du Mouriez du Prier (grandfather of French Revolution's general Charles Franois Dumouriez), solicited an audience with King Louis XIV. Greatly interested in Jan Van der Heyden's invention, he successfully demonstrated the new pumps and managed to convince the king to grant him the monopoly of making and selling "fire-preventing portable pumps" throughout the kingdom of France. Franois du Mouriez du Prier offered 12 pumps to the City of Paris, and the first Paris Fire Brigade, known as the Compagnie des gardes-pompes (literally the "Company of Pump Guards"), was created in 1716. Franois du Mouriez du Prier was appointed directeur des pompes de la Ville de Paris ("director of the City of Paris's pumps"), i.e. chief of the Paris Fire Brigade, and the position stayed in his family until 1760. In the following years, other fire brigades were created in the large French cities. Around that time appeared the current French word pompier ("firefighter"), whose literal meaning is "pumper." On March 11, 1733 the French government decided that the interventions of the fire brigades would be free of charge. This was decided because people always waited until the last moment to call the fire brigades to avoid paying the fee, and it was often too late to stop fires. From 1750 on, the French fire brigades became para-military units and received uniforms. In 1756 the use of a protective helmet for firefighters was recommended by King Louis XV, but it took many more years before the measure was actually enforced on the ground.In North America, Jamestown, Virginia was virtually destroyed in a fire in January, 1608. There were no full-time paid firefighters in America until 1850. Even after the formation of paid fire companies in the United States, there were disagreements and often fights over territory. New York City companies were famous for sending runners out to fires with a large barrel to cover the hydrant closest to the fire in advance of the engines.[citation needed] Often fights would break out between the runners and even the responding fire companies for the right to fight the fire and receive the insurance money that would be paid to the company that fought it.[citation neededInterestingly, during the 19th century and early 20th century volunteer fire companies served not only as fire protection but as political machines. The most famous volunteer firefighter politician is Boss Tweed, head of the notorious Tammany Hall political machine, who got his start in politics as a member of the Americus Engine Company Number 6 ("The Big Six") in New York City.Napoleon Bonaparte, drawing from the century-old experience of the gardes-pompes, is generally attributed as creating the first "professional" firefighters, known as Sapeurs-Pompiers ("Sappers-Firefighters"), from the French Army. Created under the Commandant of Engineers in 1810, the company was organized after a fire at the ballroom in the Austrian Embassy in Paris which injured several dignitaries.

Indian Home Guards fire fighting demonstrationIn the UK, the Great Fire of London in 1666 set in motion changes which laid the foundations for organised firefighting in the future. In the wake of the Great Fire, the City Council established the first fire insurance company, "The Fire Office", in 1667, which employed small teams of Thames watermen as firefighters and provided them with uniforms and arm badges showing the company to which they belonged.However, the first organised municipal fire brigade in the world was established in Edinburgh, Scotland, when the Edinburgh Fire Engine Establishment was formed in 1824, led by James Braidwood. London followed in 1832 with the London Fire Engine Establishment.On April 1, 1853, the Cincinnati Fire Department became the first full-time paid professional fire department in the United States, and the first in the world to use steam fire engines. [1][dead link

The Sandgate Fire Brigade, Queensland, Australia, outside the Sandgate Fire-Brigade Station in 1923

The first horse-drawn steam engine for fighting fires was invented in 1829, but not accepted in structural firefighting until 1860, and ignored for another two years afterwards. Internal combustion engine fire engines arrived in 1907, built in the United States, leading to the decline and disappearance of steam engines by 1925. HISTORY OF FIRE FIGHTING EQUPMENTS

Fire fighting tools in Germany. Note the picture of a hand squirt (rear wall on right side), one of the most ancient devices for applying water to a fire.

One of the simplest forms of hand tub type fire engines, engraving from the mid 17th century in Germany

Illustration of a 1670s fire engine (pumper) made in London by John Keeling of Blackfriars. Note the nozzle is mounted to the engine; later nozzles were mounted to hoses. Also, the earliest engines wheels do not turn to the side, the men moving the engine to the fire would forcibly change the direction of the engine as needed.

Manually drawn fire pump in service in Edinburgh in 1824

A 1905 article in the magazine Popular Mechanics described the motorization of fire engines that was advancing rapidly in England and would soon occur elsewhere in Europe and North America.

A Knox fire engine, one of the first modern fire engines, manufactured in 1905 in Springfield, Massachusetts by the Knox Automobile Company.An early device used to squirt water onto a fire is a squirt or fire syringe. Hand squirts and hand pumps are noted before Ctesibius of Alexandria invented the first fire pump around the 2nd century B.C.,[24] and an example of a force-pump possibly used for a fire-engine is mentioned by Heron of Alexandria. The fire pump was reinvented in Europe during the 16th century, reportedly used in Augsburg in 1518 and Nuremberg in 1657. A book of 1655 inventions mentions a steam engine (called a fire engine) pump used to "raise a column of water 40feet [12m]", but there was no mention of whether it was portable.Colonial laws in America required each house to have a bucket of water on the front stoop during fires at night. These buckets were intended for use by the initial bucket brigade that would supply the water at fires. Philadelphia obtained a hand-pumped fire engine in 1719, years after Boston's 1654 model appeared there, made by Joseph Jencks, but before New York's two engines arrived from London.By 1730, Richard Newsham, in London, had made successful fire engines; the first used in New York City (in 1731) were of his make (six years before formation of the NYC volunteer fire department). The amount of manpower and skill necessary for firefighting prompted the institution of an organized fire company by Benjamin Franklin in 1737. Thomas Lote built the first fire engine made in America in 1743. These earliest engines are called hand tubs because they are manually (hand) powered and the water was supplied by bucket brigade dumped into a tub (cistern) where the pump had a permanent intake pipe. An important advancement around 1822 was the invention of an engine which could draft water from a water source doing away with the bucket brigade. Philadelphia fire engine manufacturers Sellers and Pennock model the Hydraulion is said to be the first suction engine produced in 1822.[25] Some models had the hard, suction hose fixed to the intake and curled up over the apparatus known as a squirrel tail engine The earliest engines were small and were carried by four men or mounted on skids and dragged to a fire. The earliest four-wheel carriage mounted engines were pulled to the fire by hand. As the engines grew larger they became horse-drawn and later self-propelled by steam engines. John Ericsson is credited with building the first American steam-powered fire engine. George Braithwaite built the first steam fire-engine in BritainUntil the mid-19th century, most fire engines were maneuvered by men, but the introduction of horse-drawn fire engines considerably improved the response time to incidents. The first self-propelled steam-driven fire engine was built in New York in 1841. It was the target of sabotage by firefighters and its use was discontinued, and motorized fire engines did not become commonplace until the early 20th century. By 1905, the idea of combining gas engine motor trucks into fire engines was attracting great attention; according to a Popular Mechanics article in that year,[26] such trucks were rapidly gaining popularity in England. That same year, the Knox Automobile Company of Springfield, Massachusetts began selling what some[27] have described as the world's first modern fire engine. A year later, the City of Springfield had an entire modern fire department supplied with Knox fire engines.For many years firefighters sat on the sides of the fire engines, or even stood on the rear of the vehicles, exposed to the elements. This arrangement was uncomfortable and dangerous (some firefighters were thrown to their deaths when their fire engines made sharp turns on the road), and today nearly all fire engines have fully enclosed seating areas for their crews.Early pumpers Early pumpers used cisterns as a source of water. Water was later put into wooden pipes under the streets and a "fire plug" was pulled out of the top of the pipe when a suction hose was to be inserted. Later systems incorporated pressurized fire hydrants, where the pressure was increased when a fire alarm was sounded. This was found to be harmful to the system, and unreliable, and today's valved hydrant systems are kept under pressure at all times, although additional pressure may be added when needed. Pressurized hydrants eliminate much of the work in obtaining water for pumping through the engine and into the attack hoses. Many rural fire engines still rely upon cisterns or other sources for drafting water into the pumps.FIRE CLASSIFICATIONComparison of fire classesAmericanEuropeanAustralasianFuel/Heat sourceClass AClass AClass AOrdinary combustiblesClass BClass BClass BFlammable liquidsClass CClass CFlammable gasesClass C-Class EElectrical equipmentClass DClass DClass DCombustible metalsClass E--Radioactive MaterialsClass KClass FClass FCooking oil or fatIn firefighting, fires are identified according to one or more fire classes. Each class designates the fuel involved in the fire, and thus the most appropriate extinguishing agent. The classifications allow selection of extinguishing agents along lines of effectiveness at putting the type of fire out, as well as avoiding unwanted side-effects. For example, non-conductive extinguishing agents are rated for electrical fires, so to avoid electrocuting the firefighter.Multiple classification systems exist, with different designations for the various classes of fire. The United States uses the NFPA system. Europe use the European Standard "Classification of fires" (EN 2:1992, incorporating amendment A1:2004). Australasia uses yet another.CONTENTS1 Ordinary combustibles2 Flammable liquid and gas3 Electrical4 Metal5 Cooking oils and fats (kitchen fires)

Ordinary combustibles

"Ordinary combustible" fires are the most common type of fire, and are designated Class A under both systems. These occur when a solid, organic material such as wood, cloth, rubber, or some plastics[1] become heated to their ignition point. At this point the material undergoes combustion and will continue burning as long as the four components of the fire tetrahedron (heat, fuel, oxygen, and the sustaining chemical reaction) are available.This class of fire is commonly used in controlled circumstances, such as a campfire, match or wood-burning stove. To use the campfire as an example, it has a fire tetrahedronthe heat is provided by another fire (such as a match or lighter), the fuel is the wood, the oxygen is naturally available in the open-air environment of a forest, and the chemical reaction links the three other facets. This fire is not dangerous, because the fire is contained to the wood alone and is usually isolated from other flammable materials, for example by bare ground and rocks. However, when a class-A fire burns in a less-restricted environment the fire can quickly grow out of control and become a wildfire. This is the case when firefighting and fire control techniques are required.This class of fire is fairly simple to fight and containby simply removing the heat, oxygen, or fuel, or by suppressing the underlying chemical reaction, the fire tetrahedron collapses and the fire dies out. The most common way to do this is by removing heat by spraying the burning material with water; oxygen can be removed by smothering the fire with foam from a fire extinguisher; forest fires are often fought by removing fuel by backburning; and an ammonium phosphate dry chemical powder fire extinguisher (but not sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate both of which are rated for B-class[2] fires) breaks the fire's underlying chemical reaction.

As these fires are the most commonly encountered, most fire departments have equipment to handle them specifically. While this is acceptable for most ordinary conditions, most firefighters find themselves having to call for special equipment such as foam in the case of other fire.FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND GAS

A CO2 fire extinguisher rated for flammable liquids and gasses These are fires whose fuel is flammable or combustible liquid or gas. The US system designates all such fires "Class B". In the European/Australian system, flammable liquids are designated "Class B", while burning gases are separately designated "Class C". These fires follow the same basic fire tetrahedron (heat, fuel, oxygen, chemical reaction) as ordinary combustible fires, except that the fuel in question is a flammable liquid such as gasoline, or gas such as natural gas. A solid stream of water should never be used to extinguish this type because it can cause the fuel to scatter, spreading the flames. The most effective way to extinguish a liquid or gas fueled fire is by inhibiting the chemical chain reaction of the fire, which is done by dry chemical and Halon extinguishing agents, although smothering with CO2 or, for liquids, foam is also effective. Halon has fallen out of favor in recent times because it is an ozone-depleting material; the Montreal Protocol declares that Halon should no longer be used. Chemicals such as FM-200 are now the recommended halogenated suppressant.ELECTRICAL

Electrical fires are fires involving potentially energized electrical equipment. The US system designates these "Class C"; the Australian system designates them "Class E". This sort of fire may be caused by short-circuiting machinery or overloaded electrical cables. These fires can be a severe hazard to firefighters using water or other conductive agents: Electricity may be conducted from the fire, through water, to the firefighter's body, and then earth. Electrical shocks have caused many firefighter deaths.Electrical fire may be fought in the same way as an ordinary combustible fire, but water, foam, and other conductive agents are not to be used. While the fire is or possibly could be electrically energized, it can be fought with any extinguishing agent rated for electrical fire. Carbon dioxide CO2, FM-200 and dry chemical powder extinguishers such as PKP and even baking soda are especially suited to extinguishing this sort of fire. PKP should be a last resort solution to extinguishing the fire due to its corrosive tendencies. Once electricity is shut off to the equipment involved, it will generally become an ordinary combustible fire. In Europe "Electrical Fires" are no longer a class of fire as electricity can not burn. The items around the electrical sources may burn. By turning the electrical source off, the fire can be fought by one of the other class of fire extinguishers.Some extinguishers are labeled as containing dry chemical extinguishing agents. This may be confused with dry powder. The two are not the same.

Using one of these extinguishers in error, in place of dry powder, can be ineffective or actually increase the intensity of a metal fire.

Metal fires represent a unique hazard because people are often not aware of the characteristics of these fires and are not properly prepared to fight them.

Therefore, even a small metal fire can spread and become a larger fire in the surrounding ordinary combustible materials. Only dry powder should ever be used to extinguish a metal fire.METAL

Certain metals are flammable or combustible. Fires involving such are designated "Class D" in both systems. Examples of such metals include sodium, titanium, magnesium, potassium, uranium, lithium, plutonium, and calcium. Magnesium and titanium fires are common. When one of these combustible metals ignites, it can easily and rapidly spread to surrounding ordinary combustible materials.

With the exception of the metals that burn in contact with air or water (for example, sodium), masses of combustible metals do not represent unusual fire risks because they have the ability to conduct heat away from hot spots so efficiently that the heat of combustion cannot be maintainedthis means that it will require a lot of heat to ignite a mass of combustible metal. Generally, metal fire risks exist when sawdust, machine shavings and other metal 'fines' are present. Generally, these fires can be ignited by the same types of ignition sources that would start other common fires.

Water and other common firefighting materials can excite metal fires and make them worse. The NFPA recommends that metal fires be fought with "dry powder" extinguishing agents. Dry powder agents work by smothering and heat absorption. The most common of these agents are sodium chloride granules and graphite powder. In recent years powdered copper has also come into use.

Laboratory simulation of a chip pan fire: a beaker containing wax is heated until it catches fire. A small amount of water is then poured into the beaker. The water sinks to the bottom and vaporizes instantly, ejecting a plume of burning liquid wax into the air.Fires that involve cooking oils or fats are designated "Class K" under the American system, and "Class F" under the European/Australasian systems. Though such fires are technically a subclass of the flammable liquid/gas class, the special characteristics of these types of fires, namely the higher flash point, are considered important enough to recognize separately. Saponification can be used to extinguish such fires, as can dry-powder, CO2 or, for small fires, mechanical smothering. Appropriate fire extinguishers may also have hoods over them that help extinguish the fire.


FIRE HYDRANT SYSTEM SPRINKLER SYSTEMFIRE ALARM SYSTEMZONING SYSTEMEVACUATION METHODSTAIR PRESSURIZATION1.FIRE HYDRANT SYSTEM: Water being the main extinguishing medium, major fires have to be controlled and extinguished by the use of water from fire fighting hoses operated by the regular fire services.

HYDRANT SYSTEM CAN BE OF TWO TYPES:EXTERNAL HYDRANT SYSTEM: where the hydrants are installed in the open,like city or town water mains or hydrant system is installed in the open area in the industrials and such other occupancies. These systema are essential and important requirements for fire fighting in town and cities. The capacity pumps required for these system have to be worked out based on requirements of output and pressure for system. Pressure requirement for this systems are normally designed based on practical consideration and basic needs. A minimum residual pressure 1.5 kg/cm usually should be maintained at hydrant delivering.FIRE HYDRANT SYSTEM

INTERNAL HYDRANT SYSTEM: installed in building and other structure to be protected. An internal hydrant system comprisses of following elements:Static tank for storing water for fire fighting purpose.Rising main down comer main and external main to feed water from source to the required point under pressure.Fire fighting pumps with all components.Other necessary component like internal hydrants called as landing valves , external hydrants , hose reels, branch pipe in cabinets.FIRE HYDRANTS: fire hydrant provide the meance of drawing water from the water mains for fire fighting. The water main is provided with a branch or t-piece to which hydrant is attached either directly or with a short length of pipe.THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF HYDRANTS:1.STAND POST TYPE2. UNDERGROUND TYPE1.STAND POST TYPE: GENERAL REQUIRMENTS-Should have one or two sluice-valvesRoad surface boxesDuck foot bendFlenge riserFigure of stand post hydrant system given below:Figure of stand post hydrant system given belowUNDERGROUND TYPE HYDRANT SYSTEM:These hydrants are placed underground alongside the water mains on a short branch water flowing horizontally past the sluice valve.The hydrant consists of three main castings , the inlet piece which is connected to the pipe , the sluice valve itself and the duckfoot bend leading to the outlet.For operating the hydrant certain hydrant fitting are required such as hydrant stand pipe and hydrant cover key, hydrant key , water iron and hydrant bar etc.For locating the hydrant ,prominently marked hydrants plates are provided on the ground surface. Figure of underground sluice hydrant system is given below:FIRE HYDRANT EQUIPMENTSFIRE HYDRANT SYSTEM IN BUILDINGPUMP ROOM HOSE REEL SYSTEMHOSE REEL Typical hydrant boxAUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM: Automatic sprinkler are devices for automatically distributing of water upon a fire at sufficient quantity to extinguish completely or to prevent its spread by keeping the fire under control by the water discharged from sprinklars. The water for fire fighting is fed to the sprinklers through a system of piping normally suspended from ceiling with the sprinkler system at intervals along the pipes. The orifice of sprinkler head, Incorporating the fusible link or fusible bulb of automatic sprinkler ,is normally kept closed which is thrown open on the actuation of the temperature- sensitive fusible link or fusible bulb.The figure depicting the layout of typical sprinkler system is given below:These systems are quite effective for ensuring the life safety since they give early warning of the existence of fire and simaltaniously start the application of water on the fire, which will help in control on fire.the downward force of water spray from sprinkler also helps minimize the smoke accumulation in the room of fire beside cooling the environment and promoting survival for occupants.TYPES OF SPRINKLER SYSTEM:THERE ARE FOUR TYPE OF SPRINKLER SYSTEM:1.WET-the pipes are permanently charged with water and usefull for all location except where freezing temperature are likely to occur .2. DRY- pipes are generally charged with air with under pressure.3.ALTERNATE- can be arranged to be either wet or dry depending upon the ambient temp. condition. 4.PREACTION- the pipes are generally charged with air and get filled with water when fire actuates a separate detection system. 35WATER SUPPLIES :-It is essential that sprinkler system are provided with a suitable and acceptable water supply. The rules accept the following sources subject to certain specific condition.Town mains.Elevated private reservoirsGravity tanksAutomatic pump supply Pressure tanks.SPRINKLER HEAD:-.Their operation can be divided into two parts:1.Those in which operating medium is fusible solder and2.Those in which operating medium is a glass bulb..Fusible solder type- in this type the body of sprinkler is held in place by two yokes and a flexible diaphragm into which a valve is fitted. Three parts , viz., the strut the hook and the key are held together with a special fusible solder. In the fire condition the fusible solder melt and the component members are thrown clear of heads and allowing water to flow out in the form of spray after heating the deflector.4.Fusible bulb type:- the second type of operating sprinkler head utilizes a frangible bulb . in this a small bulb of special type contains a liquid leaving a small air bubble entrapped in it. When exposed to heat from fire , the liquid expands and the bubbles disappears . due to increase the pressure of the bulb shatters realizing water in form of spray . the operating temperature is regulated by adjusting amount of liquid A typical sprinkler bulb type sprinkler head showing componentsTEMPERATURE RATING OF AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERSAutomatic sprinklers have various ratings that are based on standardised test in which in which a sprinkler is immersed in liquid and the temperature of liquid raised only slowly until the sprinkler operates. All heads are marked with their operating temperature rating , and colour codes for easy identification.TYPES OFSPRINKLERS:-The following are types of sprinklers which are accept for general use:Conventional sprinklers:- these produce a spherical type of discharge with a portion of water directed upward to the ceiling .Spray type:- these operates the hemispherical discharge below the water with no water being directed upward.Ceiling flush pattern:- the heads are installed with the base flush ceiling and the heat sensitive element facing downwards. Side wall pattern:- these are installed along the wall of the room close to ceiling and produces a horizontal pattern of spray .Dry upright pattern:- these are same as pendent type sprinklers. Ceiling flush 2.side wall 3. Pendent dry 4. Dry upright.SPRINKLER WATER SUPPLY:-The water supply for any sprinkler system adequate and reliable pressure and flow as per sprinkler system rules. Use of salt is not permitted, the supplies may be by 1. Town mains 2. Elevated reservoir 3.gravity tanks 4. Automatic supply pump and 5. Pressurizes tanks . apart from primary water supply , secondary water supply arrangements should also be made as stand by.Diagrammatic layout of pipe work of sprinkler installation is given below:Water spray system:-Water spray system is special fixed pipe connected to a reliable source of pressurized water supply and equipped with water spray nozzles for application on area to be protected .This system can be used for one or more undersigned purpose:Extinguishment of fire Control of fire Exposer protection and prevention of fireThe suppression of fire is achieved cooling ,dilution of oxygen supplies dilution of liquid fuils.Water spray systems are generally used for fire protection of flammable liquid and and gas storage tank piping , pumping equipment , electrical equipments.Types of water spray required will depend on the nature of hazard and protection required.Size of the system: Since most systems perform as deluge systems, large quantities of water required. TYPES OF WATER SPRAY SYSTEM:There are basic two types of water spray system ,one of these is used to extinguish oil fires and usually referred to as water spray projector , other is mainly used to provide protection to plant, process and equipment and to prevent explosion generally known as water spray protector system . HIGH VELOCITY System: it is generally used for extinction of fire in flammable medium and heavy oils or similar flammable liquid having a flash point above 65 degree. Two types of high velocity water spray systemHigh velocity water spray system for transformers should be well designed to have adequate coverage of the entire transformer unit , including the conservation tank .The water spray system should have isolation facilities so as to enable periodic testing , maintenance , normally all cut of valves should be loked open.Automatic water spray projector system: High velocity water spray system for transformer protectionMedium velocity water spray system :-The system applies water in finely divided droplets at medium velocity this is mainly used for fire protection of areas with fire risks from low FP flammable liquids and also for fire extinguishment of water miscible liquids. It gives protection to tanks , structure by cooling by controlled flammable burning liquids and also from dilution of explosive gases.3.FIRE ALARM SYSTEM:-It is essential that building where people congregate have a fire alarm system which is operable without exposing any person to undue risk. Alarms in offices and shops may be audible or visible . in each case the alarm must be distinctive in that it must not be capable of being confused with any other warning system on the premises. TYPES OF ALARM SYSTEM:MANUAL MECHANICAL ALARMS:- manual warning systems may be mechanical or electrical . frequently used mechanical devices are hand operated fire bells or triangles. Hand operated appliances ,although they need little maintenance , have two disadvantages. First fire warning should continue until everyone is off the premises and with manual mechanical appliances this is difficult ,if not impossible , to achieve. Even in a small building it is good practice to have at least two alarms , as far apart as possible , so that there is a change of one being accessible if the other is isolated. Second ,in a building of any size ,with a number of alarms ,a comprehensive can only be given as a chain reaction , those hearing the first alarm sounding another , and so on . a simultaneous warning through out the building is scarcely possible ; in fact ,an appreciable time lag can take place before the last warning is sounded. MANUAL ELECTRICAL ALARMS:- Electric bells actuated manually from one or more break glass call points are the usual type of manual electrical alarm the circuit being so arranged that the warning ,once initiated , continue to sound automatically . The offices , shops and railway premises act of the united kingdom calls for an effective means of giving warning in case of fire . this has been interpreted as allowing visual signal in place where , for examples, deaf persons are employed , perhaps as office accounting machine operators . in this condition alarm must attract attention by affecting a persons peripheral vision .it must attract attention under all condition of lighting , ranging from bright sunlight in southern facing room during the day, to various intensities of artificial light at night . AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARMS:Manual electrical break glass point and automatic fire detectors can operate side by side on the same system , and there is no technical objection to both being used on a same circuit . the object is to use and manual break glass call point in occupied areas.THERE ARE AT PRESENT , SEVEN SEPARATE AND CLEARLY DEFINED GROUPS OF FIRE DETECTORS.Group 1.:- detectors for hazardous situationsGroup 2.:- ionization detectors Group 3.:- visible smoke detectors Group 4.:- flame detectorsGroup 5.:- ultra sonic and laser detectorsGroup 6.:- combustion gas detectorsGroup .7:- heat detectors4. EVACUATION METHOD:-The protection of every occupants of high rise building must be made a part of full service total fire safety program. Regardless of the building construction sophisticated fire detection system , fire protection and fire fighting apparatus used a building is only as people save as the building owners , managers and tenant spokemen want it to be. Fire prevention , fire protection , adequate evacuation programming planning and complete rehearsal for survival are needed to make sure losses will be minimal in the event of the fire .EFFICIENT EVACUATION :- SUCCESSFUL AND EFFICIENT EVACUATION DEPENDS UPON THE COMPLETE PLANNING AND PROGRAMING ORGANISATION AND SUPERVISION . PLANNING SHOULD INCLUDE AT LEAST THREE BASIC PRINCIPLES.Building evacuation organization Evacuation policy and plans Detection and reporting Evacuation programe reportingCommunication to direct movement and evacuationInspection and evaluationIn event of fire:-in event of fire the manager or chief engineer should have to assigned the authority to order evacuation of given floor or several floors of buildings . additional floor may be evacuated at the direction of the local fire department.Floors to be evacuated:-Generally evacuation will be from the floor on which emergency has occurred and two floors immediately below and above the emergency floor to a safe point below or above the critical area. Evacuation should be accomplished by way of fire stair wells. If smoke or fire has penetrated a stairwell , alternate stairwell should be used. STAIR PRESSURISATIONPressurisation systems protect escape routes and fire-fighting shafts against the ingress of smoke by maintaining the pressure within the escape route higher than that in the adjacent spaces. A pressurisation system consists of three main components: Supply Air (where air is injected into the area that is to be protected), Pressure Relief (to avoid overpressure when doors are closed) and Air Release (air and smoke is released from the adjoining fire area). Combining these elements creates a positive pressure difference which prevents lobbies and staircases from filling up with smoke. Pressurisation systems should meet the recommendations of Approved Document B and BS EN 12101-6 Specification forPressure Differential Systems or BS 5588-4 - Code of practice for smoke control using pressure differentials.In commercial buildings pressurisation is normally carried through up to the final door to the accommodation, with air release provided from the accommodation. In apartment buildings it is usually impracticalto carry pressurisation up to each apartment door due to the difficulty of providing air release from each apartment. Therefore stairs and lobbies are usually pressurised with air release from the corridor.The escape stair pressurization system is a mechanical ventilation system. In order to pressurize the stairs of vertical buildings, it is necessary to install sets of motor-fans that suck air into the stairwell, keeping a pressure of 40 to 60 pa. The main purpose is to prevent infiltration of smoke in the event of a fire.The system consists of the installation of a fan with an electric motor mounted in an insolated compartment. The outside air is captured through a shutter that has a particle filter. The insufflating of air to the escape stair occurs through the air release pipe generated by the fan.The pressurization system may be activated manually or through the systems and devices described below:- Automatically, by means of a fire detection system;- Manually, by buttonhole installed at the entrance gate of the building;- Manually, directly on the electric fan panel.The air pressure counterbalance that is required in the stair is controlled through manual and automatic dampers properly calculated and installed at the release area of the fan and at the top of the stair.1/13/2014491/13/2014