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  • TSUNAMIS IN THE OCEANS AND MEDITERRANEAN

    Middle East Technical University, Civil Engineering Department Ocean Engineering Research Center

  • 3

    TSU: harbor

    NAMI: wave

    ( )

    The word tsunami was regitered in all languages after Great Meiji Tsunami 1883.

  • 4

    WHAT IS TSUNAMI?

    A tsunami is a series of ocean waves of extremely long wave length and long period generated in a body of water by an impulsive disturbance that displaces the water.

  • 5

    CAUSES OF TSUNAMI

    Impulses are:

    Submarine Earthquakes

    Undersea Landslides

    Volcanoes

    Impacts of objects from outer space

    (such as meteorites, asteroids, and

    comets)

  • Thanks Dr. Wattana (Thailand)

    6

    Vertical motion of the plates

    IAEA

  • 7

    Thanks Dr. Wattana (Thailand)

    Vertical motion of the plates

    IAEA

  • TSUNAMI AMPLIFICATION

    Thanks Dr. Wattana (Thailand) 8

    IAEA

  • 9

    IAEA

  • 10

  • Generation

    Split

    Propagation

    Transformation

    Reflection

    Amplification

    Tsunami model NAMI DANCE Developed from TUNAMI N2

  • Deadliest Tsunamis in History

    2004 9.0 Indian Ocean

    1630-1410 b.c. Crete-Santorini, Ancient Greece

    1755 8.5 Portugal, Morocco, Ireland, and the United Kingdom

    1908 Messina, Italy

    1782 7.0 South China Sea, Taiwan

    1883 Krakatau, Indonesia

    1707 8.4 Tokaido-Nankaido, Japan

    1896 7.6 Sanriku, Japan

    1868 8.5 Northern Chile

    2011 8.9 Great East Japan Tsunami

    1792 6.4 Kyushu Island, Japan 1Source: National Geophysical Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

    Read more: Tsunami Factfile Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/spot/tsunami.html#tsunami#ixzz29zaNUS4U

    Fatalities1 Year Magnitude Principal areas

  • Fatalities1 Year Magnitude Principal areas

    830,000 1556 8.0 Shansi, China 255,000+ 1976 8.0 Tangshan, China

    230,000+ 2004 9.1 off west coast of northern Sumatra

    230,000 1138 n.a. Aleppo, Syria 222,570 2010 7.0 Haiti 200,000 1920 8.6 Gansu, China 200,000 1927 7.9 near Xining, China 200,000 856 n.a. Damghan, Iran 150,000 893 n.a. Ardabil, Iran 143,000 1923 7.9 Kwanto, Japan Source: National Earthquake Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey. Data compiled from several sources.

    Read more: Tsunami Factfile Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/spot/tsunami.html#tsunami#ixzz29zc1Wizm

    Deadliest Earthquakes in History

  • List of Recent Tsunamis Sep. 5, 2012 --Costa Rica: Aug. 27, 2012 -- El Salvador: Apr. 11, 2012 -- Sumatra: Jul. 6, 2011 -- Kermadec: Mar. 11, 2011 -- Honshu, Japan: Dec. 21, 2010 -- Bonin Islands, Japan: Oct. 25, 2010 -- Mentawai, Indonesia: Apr. 6, 2010 -- Sumatra: Feb. 27, 2010 -- Chile Jan. 12, 2010 -- Haiti Jan. 3, 2010 -- Solomon Islands:

    Oct. 7, 2009 -- Vanuatu and Santa Cruz Islands: Sep. 29, 2009 -- Samoa: Aug. 10, 2009 -- Andaman Islands: Jul. 15, 2009 -- New Zealand: Nov. 14, 2007 -- Northern Chile:

    Sep. 12, 2007 -- Sumatra: Aug. 15, 2007 -- Peru: Apr. 1, 2007 -- Solomon Islands:

    Jan. 13, 2007 -- Kuril Islands, Russia: Nov. 15, 2006 -- Kuril Islands, Russia: Jul. 17, 2006 -- South Java: Mar. 28, 2005 -- Indonesia: Dec. 26, 2004 -- Indonesia (Sumatra): Sep. 25, 2003 -- Hokkaido: Jun. 23, 2001 -- Peru: Jan. 13, 2001 -- El Salvador: Nov. 26, 1999 -- Vanuatu: Jul. 17, 1998 -- Papua New Guinea: Jun. 10, 1996 -- Andreanov: Jul. 12, 1993 -- Okushiri, Japan:

    http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/database_devel.html

  • SUMATRA

  • NORTHERN SUMATRA (INDONESIA, INDIAN OCEAN) EARTHQUAKE (Mw~9. 0) of DECEMBER 26, 2004 :

    Source Rupture Processes , Slip Distribution Modeling and Tsunami Generation

    Preliminary Rupture Model Contributed by

    Tuncay Taymaz, O nur Tan and Seda Yolsal

    Department of Geophysics

    http://www.geop.itu.edu.tr/~taymaz/sumatra

    Kenji Satake

  • EPICENTER

    3.298 LU, 95.779 BT

    ACEH

    SUMATERA UTARA

  • Acknowledgements UNESCO IOC

    Middle East Technical University, METU, Ankara

    YILDIZ Technical University, YTU, Istanbul

    TMMOB-Chambers of Geological and Civil Engineers

    Yuksel Insaat A.

    Mavi Jeans

    Lafarge

  • Acknowledgements

    Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries

    Republic of Indonesia

    Prof. Ir. Widi Agoes Pratikto

    Dr. Ir. Subandono Dipsosaptono

    Dr. Gegar Sapta Prasetya

    Dr. Ir. Rahman Hidayat

  • Acknowledgements

    Dr. Eng. Dinar Catur Istiyanto

    Ir. Widjo Kongko, M.Eng

    and

    Russian Colleagues and Team

    American Colleagues and Team

    Japanese Colleagues and Team

  • GREAT EAST JAPAN TSUNAMI

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    Chamber of Civil Engineers Turkey

    Yuksel Project International Co., Turkey

    Dolsar Ltd., Turkey

    Kiska Com. , Turkey

    Cesas Ltd., Turkey

    METU and Bogazici University KOERI, Turkey

    Tohoku University , Japan

    NSF Rapid Grant, USA

    TUBITAK (Turkey)-RFBR (Russia) Joint Research Grant (MORAT)

    HCMR, Greece

    Dr. Masahiro Yamamoto and Dr. Laura Kong 39

  • GENERAL EVALUATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE

    Narrow long bays

    Along rivers

    Coastal Forestation

    Marine Vessels

    Tsunami Breakwaters

    Tsunami Walls along the Coastlines

    Wooden Structures

    Concrete Structures

    Bridges

    Scouring

    Berthing Places

  • Erick

    Mas

    Dr. Anawat

    Suprassi Nikos

    Kaligeris

    Prof. Dr. Ahmet

    Yalciner

  • MEGA TSUNAMIS IN JAPAN

    42

    869 JOGAN TSUNAMI

    1611 KEICHO TSUNAMI

    1896 MEIJI TSUNAMI

    1933 SHOWA TSUNAMI

    1960 SHIZUKAWA TSUNAMI

    (CHILE EARTHQUAKE)

  • From field guide, 3rd International Tsunami Field Symposium, April, 2010, Tohoku University, Sendai

    Trip leaders: Nobuo Shuto, Fumihiko Imamura

  • From field guide, 3rd International Tsunami Field Symposium, April, 2010, Tohoku University, Sendai

    Trip leaders: Nobuo Shuto, Fumihiko Imamura

  • Distribution of Maximum Tsunami Amplitude in Pacific Ocean

    Intial Wave

  • TSUNAMI RUNUP DISTRIBUTION

    Ref: Coastal Engineering Committe Japan

  • Field Investigations after Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami May 30 June 3, 2011

  • SENDAI

    Sendai airport

    Yuriage

    Arahama

    Sendai port

    SENDAI a i

    49

    SENDA PORT

    SENDA AIR PORT

  • ARAHAMA-SENDAI

  • Morioka Taro

    Miyako

    Yamada

    Otsuchi

    Kamaishi

    Ofunato

    Ichinoseki

    Rikuzentakata

    Kesennuma

    Kitakami

  • TARO

    1896

    1933

  • MIYAKO

  • KAMAISHI

  • KAMAISHI

  • OFUNATO

  • OFUNATO

  • RIKUZENTAKATA

  • Before, 2010 Before, 2010

    Before 2010 After Tsunami

    The only pine tree in Rikuzentakata

  • RIKUZENTAKATA

  • KESENNUMA

  • Assyrians, Chaldeans, Hebrews, Hittites, Akkadians, Etruscans, Minoans, Mycenaeans, Egyptians, Mesopotamians, Babylonians, Sumerians, Nubians, Persians , Phonecians, Vencians, Genoans, Arabs, Greeks, Romans, Ottomans

    Civilizations Plato, Socrates, Hammurabi, Aristotle , Alexander, C easar, Cleopatra, Augustus

    Philosofers Pharaohs, Emperors, Kings, Queens and Sultans

    Governors

  • W ar and Peace, Olive, Grape, Date, Sun, Beach, Breeze Culture, archaeology, art, music, theater, language, philosophy, politics, democracy, l ife and more

  • MEDITERRANEAN SEA

    E-W 3900 km S-N 1600 km max

    4 000 000 km 2 Depth max. 4400 m

    Map from IOC UNESCO

  • NOAH FLOOD

    Noah Flood (approximately 7000-5000 years

    before present)

    CONNECTION BETWEEN AEGEAN AND

    BLACK SEAS THROUGH STRAITS

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    Santorini

  • The Santorini /(Thera) Eruption and Tsunami Minoan Age in Aegean Sea

    One of the main centers of explosive eruptions is

    located on Thera (Santorini), and the eruption of

    the Thera volcano in late Minoan time (1600

    1300 B.C.) is considered to have been the most

    significant Aegean explosive volcanism during

    the late Holocene.

  • Map of Aegean Sea and adjacent region showing areas and sites mentioned in text. Felsic volcanic products of Minoan eruption are found on Aegean Sea coasts and in eastern Mediterranean deep-sea cores. Tsunamigenic sediment layers were discovered in Didim and Fethye (western Turkey) and Gouves (Crete) (Minoura et. al., 2000)

  • 23.5 24 24.5 25 25.5 26 26.5 27 27.5 28 28.5 29

    35

    35.5

    36

    36.5

    37

    37.5

    -50010020030050070010001400180022502750325037504250

    10 15 20 25 30 35 40

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    1800

    2250

    2750

    3250

    3750

    4250

  • EARTHQUAKES FOR OVER 4000 YEARS INSTRUMENTAL SEISMICITY FOR OVER 100 YEARS MANY IMPORTANT CITIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST WERE DESTROYED BY EARTHQUAKES

    EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

  • 134 tsunami in Easterm Mediterranean

    365 Tsunami

    is the strongest known tsunami

    in Eastern Mediterranaean

  • Altinok TRANSFER Project.

    Altinok Y. and Ersoy Journal of Natural Hazards 21, 185-199, (2000)

    Cita M.B., Rimoldi Eastern Mediterranean Deep- -7 pp. 293-304, (1997)

    Guidoboni, E., Comastri, A., and TrainaInstituto Nazionale di , Rome (1994).

    Tinti S. and Maramai Azur, France: A Step Annali di Geofisica, Vol. 39, pp. 1253-1299. (1996)

    Annali di Geofisica, Vol. 13, pp. 369-386, (1960)

    AmbraseysAnnali di Geofisica, Vol. 32, pp. 113-130, (1962)

    Papadopoulos G. A. and Chalkis317.

    Tinti S., Maramai, A. and GrazianiNo. 3, pp. 439-465.(2004).

    Papadopoulos G.A. and Fokaefs --170, (2005)

  • The locations of the tsunami triggered events in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea classified according to the estimated earthquake magnitudes

  • Probable Sources :

    Sea floor deformations with fault breaks related to earthquakes

    Submarine or Subaerial Landslides

    Sea floor subsidence by pull apart mechanism of strike slip faults

    Caldera Collapse, Volcanic eruptions,

    Explosions or cosmic collision

    which disturb the overlying water column and cause instability in water body

    UNESCO-RELEMR Workshop on Seismicity and Earthquake Engineering in the Extended Mediterranean

    Ankara Plaza Hotel, 21-24 June 2010

  • Dalaman

    21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

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  • 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

    35

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    40

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  • 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

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    36

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    DALAMAN

  • Dalaman Imamura, Minoura, Takahashi, Papadopoulos, Kuran Yalciner

  • 1303?

    1473

    1740 ?

    Dalaman

    Imamura, Minoura, Takahashi,

    Paapdopoulos, Kuran, Yalciner

  • Dalaman Mediterranean Meulaboh Indian Ocean

  • July 21, 365 event by NAMI DANCE;

  • 10min

    30min

    60min

    90min

    Figure 6.12: Propagation of the landslide generated tsunami wave in 10, 30, 60 and 90 minutes