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    Geography EOY Exams

    REVISION SLIDES

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    This POWERPOINT states only the

    emphasis of the EOY Examinations

    Chapter 2

    Chapter 3

    Chapter 4

    Chapter 5

    Chapter 7

    Chapter 8

    Chapter 9

    Chapter 10

    Chapter 11

    Chapter 12

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    Chapter 2

    Revolution

    Rotation

    Climatic Patterns

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    Revolution

    1Revolution takes 365 Days

    It is tilted @23.5 degrees

    This causes seasons in some parts of the world

    as some parts of the world are tilted away/tiltedtowards the sun.

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    Northern and Southern Climate

    Patterns

    Northern

    February, March, April-----Spring

    May, June, July-----Summer

    August(1/2 Summer,1/2 Autumn), September,October------Autumn

    November, December, January(1/2 Winter,1/2

    Spring)-----Winter

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    Rotation

    1 Rotation takes 24hrs

    It Rotates from west to east

    When the Earth Rotates Only selective parts of

    the surface comes into contact, therefore thismake Day and Night

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    Chapter 3

    Case Study on Kalahari Desert .

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    Kalahari Desert

    In S. Africa, Botswana, Namibia

    Largely Physical environment.

    Adapted to environment using simple

    tools(arrows, sticks, ostrich egg shells(storewater)

    Tribe called !Kung Bushmen.

    They moved to wherever water was.

    They hunted animals for fur(clothes) and food

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    Chapter 4 and 5

    Map reading

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    Map Reading Parts

    Title

    Grid Lines

    Contour Lines

    Name of features

    North arrow

    Scale

    Legend Symbols

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    Map Reading skills

    Measuring distance

    Grid reference

    Bearing

    Contour reading

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    Title

    Tells what is the area of the map covered.

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    Grid Lines

    Easting and Northing

    Tell us where exactly where an area is.

    Need pic

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    Contour Lines

    Showing which areas which have the sameheight above or below sea level.

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    Name of features

    Certain buildings, roads which are important

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    North arrow

    Shows direction each place is facing

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    Scale

    Ratio or line

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    LEGEND

    Used to tell us what types of buildings etc. are ata particular place.

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    Symbol

    A shape which represents something.

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    Atlas

    Longitudes and Latitudes

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    Latitudes

    Important parts

    Equator(0), Tropic of Cancer(23.5N) and

    Capricon(23.5S), Arctic(66.5N) and

    Antarctica(66.5S) Circle, North(90N) and South

    Pole(90S)

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    Longitudes

    Important line

    GREENWICH MERIDIAN

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    Using both

    example : 20E 40S

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    Time Zones

    Divided into 24 time zones..

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    Why is the Greenwich meridian so

    important and special.

    Anything to the left of it -1h, right +1h.

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    Chapter 7

    Understand the different spheres and how theyaffect each other.

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    Types of spheres

    Biosphere------organisms

    Lithosphere----land

    Hydrosphere --water

    Atmosphere ---air

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    How they affect each other.

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    tion

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    Air POLUTION

    EMITION OF CABON monoxide

    Harmful gases in Atmosphere

    Water pollution

    Rain falls and harmful gases dissolveinto water pollutants

    They fall into land and water.

    Biosphere andLithosphere

    Organisms drink water and diem

    Soil erosion takes place.

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    Chapter 8

    Types of Rocks and how they are formed. Layers of Earth

    Plates and its movements

    Volcanoes Mt Merapi

    Weather and Erosion

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    Types of Landforms and how

    they are formed MountainHigh area of land more than 600m.

    Steep Slopes and a narrow peak. Formed

    through Convergence. Hill - A small mountain of the height of less than

    600m. Typically rounded in shape.

    Valleya area between 2 mountains or hills.

    Plain - a plain broad piece of land.

    PlateauGenerally raised land which has a

    large, flat top and steep slopes.

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    Layers of the Earth

    Core around 5000 degree Celsius also, it is solid. Mantle > 2000 degree Celsius. Semi Molten

    state.

    Crust 670 km thick are the plates.

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    Plate movements

    Movement Descriptions Example Result in

    Convergence Push against

    each other

    1)Indo-Australian

    Plate & Eurasian

    2)Eurasian &

    Pacific Plate

    Fold Mountains

    and Volcanoes

    Divergence Move away from

    each other

    1)N. American &

    Eurasian Plate

    2)S. American &

    African Plate

    Undersea ridges

    Transformation Sliding 1)Pacific & N.

    American

    Earthquakes

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    Folding

    2 plates collide at a strong force that the rocksbuckle,

    When it becomes noticeable it is Folding

    Usually at the border of 2 plates.

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    Vulcanicity

    Due to the high temp. Magma sometimesescapes through the cracks of the plates or the

    plate boundaries.

    Magma that reaches the surface of the Earth is

    called Larva

    Vulcanicity is when Magma reaches the Earth.

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    HOW are volcanoes formed

    After Vulcanity occurs for several times, larva andother materials build up and forms a cone shaped

    figure called volcano.

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    (Pacific) RING OF FIRE

    A band of active volcanoes around the PacificPlate make it being known as the RING OF FIRE.

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    VOLCANOEs classification

    VOLCANOEs

    Possibility oferuption

    Active-eruptedrecently and is likely

    to erupt again.

    Dormant-Has noterupted for some

    time but may eruptagain

    Most Likely neverto erupt

    Extinct-Veryunlikely to erupt

    again.

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    Mt Merapi Case Study

    Positive and Negative points Governments measures to protect people.

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    PositivesArea surrounding are fertile, therefore suitable for

    farming as larva contains minerals

    The landscape has beautiful scenery therefore

    locals can bring them for tours to earn an income.

    They can grow crops and sell them thus earning

    an income.

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    Negatives

    Plantation, homes, road etc. will get destroyedafter an eruption.

    People might get scalded by the volcano and die.

    The ash may cause air pollution which will lead to

    breathing problems. It may also lead to acid rain.

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    Protecting the people

    Early warning system Close monitoring and prediction of when a

    volcano will erupt.

    A map to teach people how to escape

    Arranging transport to evacuate people.

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    Weathering and erosion

    Weathering is when rocks are progressivelybroken down to fragments where they are.

    Erosion is when rocks are broken down into

    fragments by wearing down a surface and moving

    them from 1 place to another.

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    Weathering Large Changes in TemperatureDuring the Day due

    to the heat it expands then in the night it contracts.This causes stress on the rocks SURFACE. After1000 over years, the rocks SURFACE will start tobreak down.

    Freezing water action When temp is low enoughwater freezes on it. When water freezes, it increasesin mass therefore, causes stress on rocks.

    Plant Growthplant growing on cracks can widen

    cracks. Plant holds moisture in these cracks.Moisture reacts with rocks causing them to breakdown.

    Rain water + CO2 = Weak Acids. Weak Acids breakdown limestone. Water may also react to oxide in

    iron causing a rusting effect.

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    ErosionAction of running water-Water in streams and rivers

    carries a lot of sediments, small particles such as silt,fine salt and mud. As water flows over these rocks, it

    wears down the road in its path. The sediments in the

    water also acts as sandpaper and scrapes the rocks.

    Action of waves-The constant breaking of waves

    against the shore together with the grinding effect of

    the sands and stones carried in the waves.

    Action of Wind-Normally takes place in dry areas. In

    deserts, strong winds carry large amounts of sand.

    They wear away the surface of stones in their path.

    They usually occur on base stones as sand are heavy

    and cannot be carried high up.

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    How do Landforms effect us?

    Location of Homes-For example it is difficult tohave towns and cities on steep slopes and

    valleys.

    Human activities-People living near volcanoes

    farm, skiing in snowy mountains in Switzerlandand South Korea.

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    Chapter 9

    Types of rocks, properties .

    Rock cycle

    How are rocks formed

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    Types of Rocks

    Igneous Sedimentary

    Metamorphic

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    Igneous

    How do they form Magma, the molten rock hardens and cools after

    thousand of years.

    Made of Tightly interlocked crystals which takes

    long time to break down.

    E.g. Granite, Basalt, Gattro

    Harder than Sedimentary but weaker than

    Metamorphic

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    Sedimentary

    How are they formed: Through Compressed Sandafter layers of Igneous rocks break down and get

    compressed.

    E.g. Sandstone, clay, chalk, shale and limestone

    Weakest among all.

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    Metamorphic

    How are they formed: Formed when its propertiesand appearances have been changed by higher

    temp and pressure.

    E.g. Marble and Schist

    Too hard and resistant to be broken down into

    smaller particles.

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    Igneous

    Sediments

    SedimentaryMetamorphic

    Magma

    Weathering and erosion(1)

    Large and

    small

    Sediments

    pile up and

    compress.

    (2)

    Intense

    Heat and

    pressure (3)

    They are

    melted afterbeing buried

    to deep

    under the

    earth. (4)

    Magma escapes through

    cracks or borders of

    plates (5)

    3

    3

    1

    1

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    Rocks in Singapore

    All types of the 3 rocks can found

    Igneous rock is in the center part of Singapore in the

    Bukit Timah area. The most common Igneous rock

    found in Singapore is granite. It is known as the Bukit

    Timah Granite Foundation.

    There are a few abandoned quarries in Bukit Timah

    called Bukit Timah Granite Foundation which have

    been converted into Nature Reserves. They are in abundance. Mainly Sandstone and

    Conglomerate.

    Small area in Pulau Tekong called Sajahat Formation.

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    Chapter 10 Distribution of Water on Earth

    Hydrologic Cycle

    River system

    River Features

    Rivers effect on People

    River Nile Case Study

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    Distribution of Water

    of surface is water. 97% is salt water from seas.

    3% is drinkable.

    70% of the drinkable is frozen in glaciers and ice

    sheets.

    1% of drinkable is in streams, rivers and lakes.

    The rest are underground and other means.

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    Hydrologic Cycle.

    Evaporation: Suns heat causes water to heat upand evaporate changing into water vapor.

    Transpiration: Plants give out water vapourthrough leaves as water vapour.

    Condensation: Warm air cools as it risestherefore changing into very small water droplets.

    Slowly billions of water droplets gather and formclouds.

    Rainfall: When these clouds become to heavythey fall as rain

    Groundwater: Water absorbed by the ground maybe absorbed by plants or flow into rivers, seas orlakes.

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    River System

    There would be a .. River source

    Tributaries

    Distributaries

    River Mouth

    All of them are part of a Drainage basin.

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    River Features

    Valleys: Low area between hills and mountains. Waterfalls: Fast moving, vertical, water from great

    height. Occurs when water flows through a layerof hard rock ontop a layer of low rock.

    Meanders: Curves which are caused by Erosionon the outer bend and deposition on the other.

    Floodplains: Fertile and flat land beside the riverbanks. Formed when rivers bursts their banks

    and the water containing nutrients and sedimentsgets absorbed making the land fertile.

    Deltas: Deltas are formed when the riverdeposits sediments into a lake or sea. There, thesediments build up but it can only do so with a

    few conditions taken into consideration.

    Conditions for Deltas to be

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    Conditions for Deltas to be

    formed 1) The river must carry large amount of sediments.

    2)Waves along coast must not be too strong such that it erodes the sediments before the sediments can be deposited.

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    Effect Rivers have on people

    Positive Negative

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    Positive

    Water supply for farming Example: Chao Pharaya River, Thailand

    Explanation: The water there allows large scaleplantation

    Fertile soil for farming Example: Ganges Plains along Ganges River,

    India

    Water supply for industry

    Explanation: 23% of water is used for industrialpurposes.

    Recreation and tourism

    Example: Singapore River

    Explanation: Can be used for water sports, water

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    Positive

    Source of drinking water and food. Explanation: Fish and other seafood can be

    commonly seen in rivers. Rivers are also a freshwater source.

    Example: Mekong River, 73 million people depend onit.

    Production of hydroelectric power

    Explanation: Dams are used to convert movingwater(hydroelectric power) into electricity

    Example: Gorges Dam, Yangtze River, 26 Generatorstotal 18000megawatts

    Means of transport

    Explanation: In forested areas, easier if travelling by

    river. This is popular with log cutters which use the

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    Negative

    Flooding Explanation: A flood can cause disaster

    especcially places with proper flood control

    Ganges River, Bangladesh

    80% of country affected

    25million homeless

    1000s of kilometers of roads were affected

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    Aswan High Dam

    Brought in many benefits however, it also broughtsome problems.

    It also 3600m long and 111m high.

    Took 30000 Egyptians 11 years to build.

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    Benefits of Aswan High Dam

    1)Steady supply of water all year round. The reservoir behind the dam, Lake Nasser would

    release its water through the dam during the dry

    season.

    2)Hydroelectric power

    From 1960-1987, Egypts population rose from 25m

    to 50 m. The dam helped cope with this change in

    population. In 1992, the dam helped produce more

    than of Egypt's energy needs

    3)Travelling along the river Nile

    Before the dam was built boats could not travel

    along the river Nile during the annual floods. Now

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    Problems of Aswan High Dam

    Loss of soil fertility The sediments and nutrients that flow through the

    River Nile are now trapped in lake Nasser. This

    causes the soil not to be enriched with sediments

    and nutrients anymore. This is also caused by thenon-existence of floods in the lower course of the

    river Nile.

    Decrease in fish supply

    The Nile delta acts as nutrients for the fish living in

    the Mediterranean sea. As amount of sediments

    decrease due to the lack of deposition to replace

    the erosion, the fishes nearing the river Nile is

    decreased affectin the livelihood of fisherman

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    Chapter 11

    Weather vs. Climate Temperature

    Rainfall

    Wind

    Major Climatic Types

    Impact of Weather and Climate

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    Weather vs. Climate

    Weather: The Condition of a part of theatmosphere at a particular place over a short

    period of time.

    Climate: The weather pattern of a part of the

    atmosphere at a long time frame, usually around30 years or more.

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    Temperature

    Degree of hotness or coldness of the air. Sixs thermometer measures the minimum

    temperature of a place. The minimum part is filled

    with alcohol while maximum side is filled with

    mercury. There are metal indexes on top of eachliquid. When the alcohol contracts the metal index

    would fall hence, lowering the minimum

    temperature, it is also same for the maximum side.

    A magnet is used to reset them.

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    Stevenson Screen

    This is the Ideal place to place the Sixs thermometer. Condition

    White---Reflects heat away from box.

    Wood---Poor conductor heat

    Louvers downwards slanting---Prevents sunlight fromentering box

    Double layered roof---Layer of air for trapped for layer

    insulation

    4 legs---For stability

    At least 1m above ground---box will not be affected by

    heat from ground

    Away from building---The box will not be affected by

    heat from the buildings.

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    Rainfall

    Amount of rain that an area receives over aperiod of time.

    Rain gauge is used to measure rainfall. It consist

    of a copper cylinder, glass bottle, outer casing, a

    funnel. Rainwater is collected for a period of24hrs(1 day)

    Usually in mm or cm.

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    Rain gauge

    Placed in a Grassy area---Grass is a poorconductor of heat. Ensures rain gauge would not

    heat up and evaporate.

    Sunk into ground---To provide stability to prevent

    it from toppling over. Distance from ground to top about 30cm---To

    prevent rain falling around rain gauge to splash

    and enter rain gauge.

    Located away from obstructions(trees, buildings)-

    --The water from trees may drip into rain gauge.

    Open area away from roads---Heat from roads,

    buildings, if too close cause water to evaporate.

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    Wind

    Movement of air over the surface of the Earth. The movement of air is caused by high and low

    pressure.

    Wind direction is derived by a wind vain.

    The direction of wind is presented in a wind rose.

    The longer the arm, the more frequent the wind

    blows form.

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    Wind Vane

    Located where wind will not be obstructed. Placed on as high, open place.

    Usually the tallest building of a particular area.

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    Major Climatic groups

    Tropical Temperate

    Polar

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    Tropical

    Lie between 23.5N to 23.5S. Due to Earths shape suns rays are more intense.

    Tropical Climatic countries receive constant

    temperature and rainfall every year.

    Rainfall is 1000mm to 2000mm

    Temperature is around 20C to 30+C

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    Temperate

    Lies from 23.5N to 66.5N & 23.5S to 66.5S 4 Seasons---Northern

    February, March, April-----Spring

    May, June, July-----Summer

    August(1/2 Summer,1/2 Autumn), September,

    October------Autumn

    November, December, January(1/2 Winter,1/2

    Spring)-----Winter Temp can range 34C to below 0C depending on

    season.

    Rainfall from 300mm to 1000mm

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    Polar

    Lies from 66.5N to 90N & 66.5S to 90S 2 Seasons Summer and winter.

    Summer

    6 months of sunshine

    Winter

    6 months of complete darkness.

    Temperature most of the time below 0C

    Rainfall often below 110mm.

    How do weather and Climate affect

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    How do weather and Climate affect

    us ?

    Daily Activities Simple decisions such as staying indoors/outdoors are

    determine by the weather.

    Housing

    Climate influences where to stay. It also determines what

    type of house people live in. Example: In Malaysia, there are floods frequently.

    Therefore, houses were built on top of stilts.

    Tourism

    When countries experience winter they like to escape the

    cold by going to countries experiencing summer. However in countries such as Singapore which does not

    experience winter people like to travel towards the coldof winter.

    How do weather and Climate affect

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    How do weather and Climate affect

    us ?

    Production of electricity In countries where sunlight is strong all year round.

    They use solar panels. However, in countries whichhave high wind speeds they use windmills.

    Food and water supplies In droughts and famines, we may not have food to

    eat.

    Theses, famines may be caused by poor weather

    such as flooding. Loss of lives and property

    Floods, heat waves, hurricanes and tornadoes.

    2003, Europe had heat waves, this destroyed crops

    and and caused many deaths by heat waves.

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    Chapter 12

    Natural Vegetation(Definition) Types of Natural Vegetation

    Climates influence of Natural Vegetation

    Benefits of Natural Vegetation

    Value of Tropical Rainforests in Singapore

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    Natural Vegetation(Definition)

    Plants that have grown naturrally

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    Types of Natural

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    yp

    Vegetation(Forest)

    Forests

    TropicalRainforest

    TemperateConiferous

    Temperate

    Deciduous

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    Forests in General

    Lies From 66.5N to 66.5S

    Temperature from -12C to 30++C

    Rainfall 300mm to 2000mm

    Has several Areas

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    Tropical Forest

    Evergreen Most have waxy drip leaves. They have a drip

    tip(sharply pointed tip) to allow rainwater to flow

    off quickly.

    Most trees also have broad leaves to absorb asmuch as possible.

    The trees and plants grow very close to each

    other. Causing the forest to be dense.

    3 Layers

    3 Layers in Tropical Rainforests

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    3 Layers in Tropical Rainforests Emergent

    Very tall 40 to 50m

    Do so to receive more sunlight

    Canopy

    15 to 30m

    Block out 70to100% of sunlight causing moist and darkundergrowth.

    Lianas are common there. They are woody climbers thathang from tree branches in loops and can grow to longlengths.

    Epiphytes are common too. They are plants that grow onother trees to receive sunlight.

    Undergrowth

    Made of shrubs, grasses, ferns, mosses and fungi.

    Plant growth is spares as very sunlight reaches this level.

    Temperate Deciduous Forests

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    Temperate Deciduous Forests Rainfall from 750 to 1000mm

    Temperature from -2 to 18C

    Found in Western Europe, Eastern North America

    Not as dense as Tropical Rainforests

    3 layers

    Canopy

    25m to 30m Thickest in summer

    Shrub Layer

    Shrubs and smaller trees

    Forest Floor

    Mosses, ferns and grasses 2nd&3rdlayer grows rapidly during summer & spring

    Only 3-4 species of tree grow within an area. They arecommonly: Oak, sycamore and elm.

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    AdaptationsFeatures Reasons

    Shed leaves during late autumn Minimize water loss through

    transpiration in the winter.

    Broad surface leaves Absorb as much sunlight as

    possible to make food before winter.

    Leaves change colour according to

    season

    Leaves turn from green to red

    during autumn. To slow down foodproduction such that food production

    stop immediately once its winter.

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    Temperate Coniferous

    Rainfall from 300 to 750mm Temperature from -12 to 10C

    Found in North America, Europe, China and Japan.

    1 Layer

    Undergrowth is sparse other than moss, lichen,

    leaves and cones.

    Soil is poor acidic

    Usually only 1 Species dominates e.g. pine, fir orspruce.

    Evergreen

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    AdaptationsFeatures Reason

    Cones Allow snow to slide off. Prevents

    tree from toppling

    Small, needle-like leaves Reduce water loss through

    transpiration. To prevent snow from

    adding weight on branches causing

    them to break off.

    Evergreen Allows food production all year

    round.

    Types of Natural

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    y

    Vegetation(Grasslands)

    NaturalVegetation

    Grasslands

    Tropical

    Savannahs

    TemperateGrasslands

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    Grasslands

    Plants, bushes and scattered trees Rainfall from 200 to1000mm

    Temperature from -20 to 30C

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    Tropical Savannahs

    Found within tropics Rainfall from 200 to 1000mm

    Temperature from 20 to 30 C

    Rainy seasons in summer but are short

    Tall grass

    Scattered trees

    Shrub-like bushes

    Grasses are very hardy, they grow in clumps\ Grasses from 2m to 5m, tend to grow in clumps.

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    AdaptationsFeatures Reasons

    Thorny Leaves are small, hard,

    waxy or leathery

    Minimize water loss(acacia thick

    leaves)

    Big, swollen trunks Store excess water during rainy

    season

    Thick Barks Protect against fires(Baobab trees)Long roots Penetrate deep under ground to tap

    groundwater

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    Temperate Grasslands

    Rainfall less than 500mm/year Temperature from -20 to 10C

    Found in Europe, Central Asia, North America,Argentina

    Almost Tree-less Low rainfall, strong winds.

    Trees such as poplar, willow, alder

    Grasses shorter compared to Tropical savanahs

    Big Bluestem grass only 3m. Known for flowers(Spring and Summer)

    Such as Poppies, Daises, Buttercups

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    Dessert Vegetation

    Dessert

    TundraHot

    Dessert

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    Dessert

    Less than 250mm rainfall From -30 to 48C

    HOT/COLD

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    Hot Dessert

    Rainfall less than 250mm Found in 20N to 30N

    As high as 48C

    Short clump of wiry grass, cacti, date palms,

    thorny shrubs, drought resistant trees.

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    AdaptationsFeatures Reasons

    Fleshy Stems/trunks Store water(cactus)

    Long roots Tap underground water(Mesquite

    tree roots 24m)

    Small/No leaves Reduce water loss through

    transpiration(cacti)Seeds with thick hard coats Can lay buried for months until rains

    arrive. Help them survive hash

    conditions

    Short life cycles Regenerate new seeds during short

    rainy spells means a short growing

    time.

    C

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    Cold Tundra Vegetation

    Rainfall less than 250mm Ground remains permanently frozen all year round

    Temperature is often below 0C other than in the summerwhen it is slightly above 0C

    Found in near or in the North and South poles and othermountainous areas

    Precipitation is majorly in the form of snow.

    Summer lasts for 2-4 months

    Only tough ground vegetation(moss, lichen, shrub)

    Plants grow close together to protect against strongwinds

    Dwarf varieties like birch and alder, remain stunted (lessthan 1m)

    Ad i

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    AdaptationsFeatures Reasons

    Short, shallow roots Prevent the roots from being

    damaged by the extreme coldness

    Frozen grown prevents roots from

    penetrating

    Most of the water is on

    surface(melted snow)Small leaves To limit water loss through

    transpiration

    Short life cycle To regenerate new seeds as short

    rainy spells mean short growing

    period

    Value of Tropical Rainforests in

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    Singapore

    Bukit Timah Nature Reserve 164 hectares of land

    Most trees are 30m or taller.

    Buttress roots can be found

    Hardwood---Seraya meranti

    Climbers---30 types include Bird nests/Stags

    Horn Fern

    A wide variety of epiphytes---Black Lilly

    Value of Tropical Rainforests in

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    Singapore

    Medicinal Properties Some species in forests have medicinal

    properties, if the forest is cleared some of theses

    plants may become extinct.

    B fit OF N t l V t ti

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    Benefits OF Natural Vegetation

    Natural Resource. Medicinal Value

    Recreation

    Oxygen in the Atmosphere

    Formation of rain

    Prevents soil erosion

    Natural Habitat

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    the PEE method of answering

    StructureP, point E, example E, elaborate

    PARA 1: tell the Reader what you are writing

    about. E.g. There are many benefits and risks in

    living near of volcano

    PARA 2: + pt of 1 direction. Also include a

    example and elaborate.

    PARA 3: + pt of the other and same as 2.

    Conclusion: State both points and make yr stand.

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    END OF NOTES !!ALL the

    BEST