General Notes on the Use of Artillery USA 1917

  • View
    214

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of General Notes on the Use of Artillery USA 1917

  • 8/8/2019 General Notes on the Use of Artillery USA 1917

    1/47

    1 8

    GENERAL NOTES ON THEUSE OF ARTILLERY

    TRANSLATED AND EDITED AT THEARMY WAR COLLEGE

    NOVEMBER, 1917

    WASHINGTONGOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

    1917IT997

  • 8/8/2019 General Notes on the Use of Artillery USA 1917

    2/47

    THE GENERAL SERVICE SCHOOLSLIBRARY

    M 9I4C3-BI5C L A S S N U M B E R /___r_____-iA C C E S S I O N N U M B E R I

    96.General

  • 8/8/2019 General Notes on the Use of Artillery USA 1917

    3/47

    WAR DEPARTMENT,WASHINGTON, November 12, 1917.The following pamphlet " General Notes on the Use of Artillery " is published for the information of all concerned.[062.1, A. G. O.]

    B Y OKDER OF THE SECRETARY OF W A R : JOHN BIDDLE, Major Genera l, Acting Chief of Staff.OFFICIAL :

    H. p. MCCAIN,The Adjutant General. a

  • 8/8/2019 General Notes on the Use of Artillery USA 1917

    4/47

    TABLE OP CONTENTS.PART I.

    Page.Preface 7Organization of the command 7General commanding the artillery of the army 7General commanding the artillery of the corps 8Colonel commanding the divisional artillery 8Missions 9Artille ry infoimation service 11Observation 12L ia i so n . . . . . . 1 3

    PART I I .EXECUTION OP MISSIONS.

    Counter-action batte ry 14Destruction 14Neutralization 15Fire on enemy fieldworks 16General remarks 16Wire entanglements 16Che vaux de frise 17Shelters 17Trenches 17Per ma nen t fortifications 17Towns and villages 18Railways 18Mainten ance of the demolition 18Fire on lines of communication 19Fire with gas shells 194

  • 8/8/2019 General Notes on the Use of Artillery USA 1917

    5/47

    TABL E OF CONTENTS. 5PART III.

    Page.The artillery during the execution of the attack 21By counter-battery fire 21By accompanying fire 21By genera l covering fire 21By box barrage 22By fire on command posts and observation stations 22By fire on lines of communication 22By fire against counter attacks 22By m ovements of batteries 23By fire against attemp ted enemy counter offensive 23

    PART IV.SPECIAL DEF ENS E F IR E.

    Offensive counter preparation 24For the field artillery 24For the high-angle-fire artillery 25For the long-range artillery 25Barrage 25Field artillery barrage 25Front 2525argets.Density of fire 26Opening of barrage fire 26Preparation for th e barrage 27Contingent fire 27Harassing fire 27Fire in reprisal 28Concentrations of fire 28

  • 8/8/2019 General Notes on the Use of Artillery USA 1917

    6/47

    TABLE OF CONTENTS.PART V.

    PREPARATION OF THE WORK OP TH E ARTILLERY.PLANS OF ACTION. Pag.Th e offensive 30Fir st role of the artillery 30Exp loitat ion of success 33Tactical exploitation 33Strategic exploitation 34Plan of action of the artille ry 35Emplo ymen t of the aviation service , 37Th e defensive 37Plan of the employm ent of the artillery 37Plan for the contingent reenforcementof the sector .. 38Appen dix I.Safety-zone tables 39Appen dix II.O ther tables 42Appendix III.Preparation of ground for an attack 46

  • 8/8/2019 General Notes on the Use of Artillery USA 1917

    7/47

    GENERAL NOTES ON THE USE OF ARTILLERY.PART ONE.

    PEEFACE.The purpose of the following discussion is an exposition of thecurren t ideas with regard to the use of artillery in war. All itscontents are drawn from the current regulations and from notesIssued by general headquarters or by the artillery instructioncenter.It must not be thought that the use of artillery is somethingimmutable; it varies not only with circumstances but withlapse of time, as new m ateriel is brought into service and requireappropriate use.

    ORGANIZATION OF THE COMMAND.Functions of the various grades of command.The following publications determine these functions:" Regulations on the Conduct of Higher Units.""Provisional Regulations for Field Artillery.""Instruction on Higher Units in Offensive Combat.""Notes on the Use of the Heavy Artillery and the High-Powered Heavy Artillery."" Note on the U se of A rtillery on the Defensive."

    THE GENERAL COMMANDING THE ARTILLERY OF THE ARMY.He distr'butes the artillery among the Army corps and exercises a direct control over its use as representative of the Armycommander. He has under his direct command the long-rangepieces (the high-powered heavy artillery 100's, 105''s, lfi's, 16's,155's, 2 40's, ?7 0's, 28 0's, S70 's, etc., and also the railway heavyartillery) of the Army, and, contingently, the groups of heavyartillery, the use of which the general commanding the Armyhas reserved to himself for the special missions which concernthe sectors of several corps. 7

  • 8/8/2019 General Notes on the Use of Artillery USA 1917

    8/47

    8 NOTES ON THE USE OF ARTILLER Y.THE GENERAL COMMANDING THE ARTILLERY OF THE ARMYCORPS.

    He exercises, as representative of the general commandingthe Army corps, a direct control over all the artillery of theArmy corps. He has under his command the batteries kept atthe disposal of the Army corps (field an d heavy ar tille ry) ;generally the medium, caliber heavy artillery (125's, 120's,and contingently 155's and 105's) and also certain batteries oflarge caliber heavy artillery howitzers; when necessary he arranges to put part of the corps artillery at the disposal of thedivisions.THE COLONEL COMMANDING THE DIVISIONAL ARTILLERY.He exercises command over the artillery belonging to the division and also over units from any source which have been putat the disposal of the sector held by the division, i. e. t trenchartillery, batteries of heavy artillery using curved fire (155howitzers and sometimes 220's), and battalions of corps artillery put at his disposal by the Army commander.There is nothing absolute about this distribution, and it ismodified according to circumstances. Above all, it must not

    lead to independent action by the artillery occupying the sectorsof the division, the Army corps, and the Army. It is indispensable that, in case of need, all batteries capable of acting onthe threatened front should be able to intervene regardless ofthe command to which they belong and of the commander fromwhom they take their orders.The mechanism for this intervention is explained in the discussion of concentration of fire. The measures to be taken tofacilitate this intervention should be foreseen and studied indetail in each unit, and should be the subject of a special chapteron the plan of use of artillery.In particular, the heavy artillery of the Army corps shouldbe organized to play the r61e of attentive servant of the divisions ; that is, to anticipate their wants and be ready to satisfythem instantaneously. This applies equally to the heavy artillery with relation to the Army corps.The organic constitution of the artillery of the different unitsis designed to meet the requirements of open warfare and avoidthe necessity of improvising at a moment of crisis.

  • 8/8/2019 General Notes on the Use of Artillery USA 1917

    9/47

    9OTES ON THE USE OP ARTILLERY.As a rule, the artillery of the Army, when given as reenforcement to an Army corps, is attached to the corps artillery. Pa rtor all of the corps artillery, including reenforcements, may beused to reenforce the divisional artillery.Nevertheless, in forming temporary artillery commands, theorganic constitution of the units should be respected as far aspossible, and battalions should be broken up only exceptionally.One authority should not have under his direct orders morethan three of four subordinate units.When any artillery is reenforced, its commander takes command of all the reenforcements. The commanders of the reenforcement are given command of intermediate units, if thisis consistent with their rank, otherwise they are left unattachedand may be used later as relief commanders.When pieces of different types are at the disposition of theArmy corps artillery, it is often advisable to form commands withbattalions of different calibers.On the offensive, when numerous trench-artillery pieces areput in action, it is advisable to distribute the different batteriesof trench artillery among the commands or battalions of 75's.This affords more supple control than is possible if one commander has under his authority units arranged side by side on

    a line along which communication between the units is difficult;the field artillery can more easily supplement the destructionof auxiliary defenses accomplished by the trench artillery; and,finally, the trench artillery is reenforced with m eans of observation (especially with airplanes, which it does not have at its owndisposal). MISSIONS.In each higher unit the commander designates the normal zoneof action of its artillery, in which it is in charge of all targetswhich are presented, whatever their nature.This, however, is not enough to secure the maximum resultsfrom the arm, for it neglects the valuable effects of enfilade fire,of concentration of fire, and of the utilization of the power ofcertain pieces to the full limit of their range. It is therefore

    necessary to provide for the intervention of the different artillery units not only in their own zone of action but in the neighboring zones as well.The artillery commander has two means of effecting this intervention : Direct command and coordination.24970 17- 2

  • 8/8/2019 General Notes on the Use of Artillery USA 1917

    10/47

    10 NOTES ON THE USE OF ARTILLERY.The fire of an artillery in Its normal zone of action is openedby the authority which has direct command of it.By coordination, a commander makes his subordinate artilleryintervene in the normal zone of his neighbor, or reinforce him.The zone in which an artillery can thus intervene outside itsnormal zone of action is its contingent none of action.The latter zone may therefore extend to the limits of possible

    acti