Habits of Mind
Habits of Mind Another perspective on curriculum design1Habits of Mindknowing how to behave intelligently when you DON'T know the answer.having a disposition toward behaving intelligently when confronted with problems, the answers to which are not immediately known: dichotomies, dilemmas, enigmas and uncertainties.
Arthur Costa and Bena Kallick, Habits of Mind, A Developmental Series
2Habits of MindPerformative Literacy knowledge that enables readers to activate and use all the other forms of knowledge required for the exercise of anything like a critical or disciplined literacy
Sheridan Blau, Performative Literacy: The Habits of Highly Literate Readers3Habits of Mind ways of thinking that one acquires so well, makes so natural, and incorporates so fully into ones repertoire, that they become mental habits not only can one draw upon them easily, one is likely to do so.E. Paul Goldenberg, Habits of Mind as an Organizer for the Curriculum4Another perspective
5New term for old conceptsIntelligence can be taught (Whimbey, 1975)Multiple Intelligences (Gardner, 1983)Learnable Intelligence (Perkins, 1995)Emotional Intelligence (Goleman, 1995)Moral Intelligence (Coles, 1997)
(Costa and Kallick)6So why teach habits ?People know how to think better about something, but are not disposed to do so Without inclination, a person will not feel drawn toward X behavior. Without sensitivity, a person will not detect an X occasion.Perkins, Jay, and Tishman, Beyond Abilities: A Dispositional Theory of Thinking7So why teach habits ?Habits of mind
emphasize attitudes, habits, and character traits in addition to cognitive skills;accommodate roles that emotions play in good learning;encourage intellectual sensitivity recognizing opportunities to engage in intellectual behavior;support thought across and beyond disciplines.
(Costa and Kallick)
8So why teach habits ?A curriculum organized around habits of mind
builds a background for advanced study in the discipline gives a strong sense of how practice in the discipline is actually doneserves the needs of students preparing for advanced study as well as students who have not developed skills or interest in the discipline
(Goldenberg)9So why teach habits ?Finally, talking about habits of mind
provides a common talking point for instructors across disciplines and grade levelsallows course designers to choose those habits of mind that best serve most students general education purposes.
(Goldenberg)10Costa & Bennicks habitsPersistingManaging impulsivityListening to othersThinking FlexiblyThinking about thinkingStriving for accuracy and precisionQuestioningApplying past knowledge to new situationsThinking and communicating with accuracy and precision
Gathering data through all sensesCreating, imagining, and innovatingResponding with wonder and aweTaking responsible risksFinding humorThinking interdependentlyLearning Continuously
11Thinking dispositionsTo be broad and adventurousToward sustained intellectual curiosityTo clarify and seek understandingTo be planful and strategicTo be intellectually carefulTo seek and evaluate reasonsTo be metacognitive(Perkins, Jay, and Tishman)12Habits of critical thinkersRespect for reasons and truthRespect for high-quality products and performancesInquiring attitudeOpen-mindednessFair-mindednessIndependent-mindedness
Respect for others in group inquiry and deliberationRespect for legitimate intellectual authorityIntellectual work ethic
Bailins, Case, Coombs, and Daniels, Conceptualizing Critical Thinking
13Blaus performative literacySustained focused attentionWillingness to suspend closure to entertain problems rather than avoid themWillingness to take risksTolerance for failure willingness to re-read and re-read againTolerance for ambiguity, paradox, and uncertaintyIntellectual generosity and fallibilityCapacity to monitor and direct ones own reading process metacognitive awareness14From the CESTed Sizer proposes:PerspectiveAnalysisImaginationEmpathyCommunicationCommitmentHumilityJoyCPESS habits of mind:Evidence how do we know what we know?Perspective who says?Connection what causes what?Supposition what if?Relevance who cares?Habits of Mind. CESNationalweb. http://www.essentialschools.org15From BYU 1st Year Exp.CuriosityQuestioningObservation (through paying attention)Analysis (understanding the parts)Integration (understanding the whole)Persistence
Habits of Mind. Office of First-year Experience, Brigham Young University16Science habits of mindCuriosityOpennessSkepticism* Balance between the two a central tension in all science. Too skeptical results in no new ideas tested. Too open results in no commitment to existing ideas.CommunicationWillingness to discuss and debate, share, cooperate and collaborate.
Mark Volkmann and David Eichinger, Habits of Mind: Integrating the Social and Personal Characteristics of Doing Science into the Science Classroom.17Mathematics habits of mindStudents should be
Cuocco, Goldenberg, and Mark. Habits of Mind: an Organizing Principle for Mathematics Curricula
18Social Studies habits of mindOpen mindedness Fair-mindednessIndependent-mindednessInquiring or critical attitudeRespect for high quality products and performancesIntellectual work ethic
Roland Case and Ian Wright, Taking Seriously the Teaching of Critical Thinking19Habits in the curriculum What we are proposing is something a bit different. It is not an act of faith that taking mathematics seriously gives one the mathematics directly and (also) improves ones thinking, but almost the reverse: taking particular ways of thinking seriously and giving them top priority among the various principles one needs for organizing mathematics (or other) curricula, gives one the thinking skills directly and also improves ones mathematics.
(Goldenberg)20Habits in the curriculum
21Habits in the curriculum In considering habits, Goldenberg proposes What habits of mind do people need to be safe, healthy, employable, socially connected ...? What habits will they need to be adaptive to unforeseen obstacles and new problemsWhat special contributions to that thinking can my discipline make?What knowledge and skills from my discipline best help to deliver the message about thinking?What might best convey the flavor of my discipline?What might be the most broadly useful to students?
22Habits in the curriculum Habit is a cable; we weave a thread of it each day, and at last we cannot break it.
Horace Mann23Habits in the curriculum Habit:A recurrent, often unconscious pattern of behavior that is acquired through frequent repetition. An established disposition of the mind or character.
Habituate:To accustom by frequent repetition or prolonged exposure
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 24Habits in the curriculum A habits of mind approach requires:Multiple opportunities for practice, becoming increasingly varied and complex and in different contexts over time.Thinking Occasions (Barry Beyer, Improving Student Learning)Providing ScaffoldsModelingOpportunity for reflection and self-talk25Thinking OccasionsBeyer, quoting Vygotsky, notes that Thinking occasions are not time to think add-ons. Rather, they are occasions that demand thinking.These occasions actually provoke thinking, by triggering it and calling it into play.
26Scaffolds A Support for thinkingStrategies/Mental ModelsWorksheets/ graphic organizersModeling open-ended nature of research27Modeling At some point in our lives, each part of the intellectual process demanded our full concentration. But once learned (or, more precisely, once mastered), our mental habits became so automatic that they faded from view.
It is that very point that spells trouble in the classroom. For the same aspects of cognition that ease our job as thinkers pose the greatest threat to our effectiveness as teachers. Our familiar mental habits, often overlooked or omitted when we describe our thinking processes to others, can create a gulf between us and our students.
Sam Wineburg, Teaching the Mind Good Habits28Professors may assume that their students are stupid or suffer from a learning disability. Often the truth is much simpler: No one has ever bothered to teach them some basic but powerful skills of interpretation. As teachers, we need to remember what the world looked like before we learned our discipline's ways of seeing it. We need to show our students the patient and painstaking processes by which we achieved expertise. Only by making our footsteps visible can we expect students to follow in them.