Immigration & Urbanization NEW IMMI ... Immigration & Urbanization NEW IMMIGRATION! An immigrant was

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  • 10/2/11 �

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    Immigration & Urbanization �

    NEW IMMIGRATION �

    !   An immigrant was quoted as saying; “All of a sudden, we heard a big commotion and we came to America and everybody started yelling – they see the Statue of Liberty… I remember my father putting his arms around my mother and the two of them standing and crying and my father said to my mother, ‘you’re in America now. You have nothing to be afraid of.’”�

    Does this mentality still reign true with today’s immigrants? Why?�

    New Immigrants�

    !   Early 1800s = Irish, British, Scottish. Catholic, Protestant �

    !   Late 1800s = Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Slovak, Czech, Chinese, Arabs, Japanese... Catholic, Jewish, Greek Orthodox�

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    Communities & Religion � !   Industrial cities in northeast and midwest

    were destinations for immigrants�

    !   Churches, Synagogues, temples, etc gave immigrants a sense of identity & belonging �

    !   Offered day care, social clubs, reading rooms, sewing classes, education/training courses�

    ! Benevolent Societies = Religious & non- religious AID organizations to help sick, unemployed, dying immigrants�

    What forms of help did immigrants receive?�

    Culture Clashes�

    !   Older immigrants held onto “old country” languages & traditions�

    !   Younger immigrants adopted American traditions & English�

    !   “One day [the old country lifestyle] will pass and then there will remain only Americans whose forebears had once been Poles.”�

    young vs. old�

    Immigrant Worker�

    !   Immigrants did America’s “dirty work”�

    !   Construction, mining, sweatshops (factories)�

    !   Long hours, low wages, poor conditions�

    !   Best paid immigrants had little more than the minimum to support a family�

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    Nativism� !   Nativists = white born Americans who feared

    people different from themselves (Do they still exist??)�

    !   Nativists Blamed immigrants for crime, poverty, violence, radical political views�

    !   Workingmen’s Party of California: “The Chinese MUST go!!”�

    ! Chinese Exclusion Act (1882): Denied citizenship to people born in China & prohibited immigration of Chinese laborers�

    What is nativism? What groups/laws formed? �

    Immigration Restriction League�

    !   Founded in 1894 �

    !   Wanted to impose “literacy test” on all immigrants�

    !   Pres. Grover Cleveland vetoed the bill�

    !   “illiberal, narrow, and un-American” �

    What is nativism? What groups/ laws formed?�

    Slum Housing for Immigrants�

    Living conditions?�

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    Factory Life�

    working conditions?�

    Nativism�

    Nativist views?�

    Nativism?�

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    Summary�

    !   Describe different reactions to immigrants in America?�

    !   From immigrants in America?�

    URBAN WORLD �

    Changing Cities�

    ! Skyscrapers: Built to house growing populations �

    ! Mass transit: allowed for massive public transportation within cities (as well as to suburbs)�

    ! Suburbs: residential neighborhoods just outside city�

    3 new improvements�

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    Electric Streetcars�

    Population Growth�

    !   Between 1865 and 1900 the % of Americans living in cities went from 20% to 40%�

    why did population growth explode between 1850 & 1900?�

    Growth of Cities�

    why did population growth explode between 1850 & 1900?�

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    NYC in 1900 �

    Edgewater Trolly early 1900s (20 mins north of UC)�

    Edgewater Factories�

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    Upper Class� !   “Newly Rich” lived in urban upper class areas�

    !   “Newly Rich” = Andrew Carnegie, John Rockefeller, Cornelius Vanderbilt �

    !   Made $$ in new industries (steel, oil, mining,etc)�

    !   Massive fortunes earned quickly�

    ! Conspicuous Consumption: The “Newly Rich” spent $$ freely so that everyone knew how successful they were�

    !   Many “Newly Rich” imitated social behavior & etiquette of British Victorian culture�

    Why called “Newly Rich”? How did they live?�

    “Newly Rich”�

    Newly Rich�

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    Middle Class� !   Increase in industry = increase in “middle class” city

    dwellers�

    !   doctors, lawyers, teachers, small business owners, accountants, clerks, engineers, managers, salesmen �

    ! Middle Class Women: �

    !   Began to work as secretaries, typists�

    !   By 1910, 35% of clerical workers were women �

    !   running water, ready made clothes, servants limited women’s household work �

    Who was in the M.C.? Impact on women?�

    The Poor�

    !   Housing shortage led to creation of Tenements (slum housing)�

    !   43,000 Tenements housed 1.6 million poor New Yorkers�

    !   African Americans had worst jobs & living conditions (payed the most for tenements)�

    !   Preferred living in North than living in South�

    Where did The Poor live?�

    Living conditions?�

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    Living conditions?�

    Living conditions?�

    Living conditions?�

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    Reform Movements� ! Settlement Houses:�

    !   Hull House created by Jane Addams�

    !   Provide educational & cultural opportunities for poor�

    !   Improve living conditions in neighborhoods�

    ! Social Gospel Movement: �

    !   Protestant ministers fight against poverty�

    !   Apply Christian principles to address social problems

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    Education �

    !   Expansion of public schools due to urban growth�

    ! Compulsory Education Laws: laws requiring parents to send children to school�

    !   1870 = 7 million public school students... 1900 = 15 million �

    !   1870 = $63 million for Public Education... 1900 = $215 million �

    !   Education = Chance at “Upward Mobility”�

    Why did public schools expand?� � Compulsory Edu Laws?� � Education = ??�

    Education �

    !   John Dewey = Education reformer/ philosopher�

    !   “Learning by doing”�

    !   Emphasized Art, History, Science�

    Who was John Dewey?�

    Education � !   Public education for immigrants�

    !   Instruct on proper behavior, civic loyalty & American cultural values�

    !   Would help cities avoid social (ethnic/ racial) upheaval�

    !   Instill order & discipline to immigrants & working class students�

    How did public education help immigrants?�

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    Publishing � ! Journalism: �

    !   1865 = 500 Daily Newspapers... 1910 = 2,600 Daily Newspapers�

    !   Newspapers in cities battled for readers�

    !   Led to “Yellow Journalism”�

    !   trying to gain readers by creating fake & sensational news stories�

    Describe “yellow journalism”�

    Urban Parks� !   Americans during late 1800s wanted to relax from “busy urban life”�

    !   Central Park designed in 1857 �

    !   1871 = Over 10 million visitors�

    !   “City Beautiful Movement”�

    !   Wanted public parks and attractive boulevards in cities to give city-dwellers a “civilizing influence”�

    !   Late 1800s over 4 million Americans began riding bikes, mostly in parks�

    What was “city beautiful movement”?�

    Sports�

    !   When not spending time in parks many Americans spent leisure time playing sports�

    !   Baseball, Football, Basketball�

    !   All “American” sports created out of “urban leisure time”�

    Why did Americans begin to play sports? What sports?�

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    Summary�

    !   How did Education change due to immigration?�

    !   How did “leisure time” change urban life?�

    Basketball�

    Basketball & Peach Basket �

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    James Naismith (inventor of Bball) with Basket & Ball�

    Girls Basketball�

    Baseball Uniform�

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    Baseball Glove�

    Baseball in Hoboken �

    Baseball in Hoboken �

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    Football Team�