Latin American Revolutions Carys Thompson Anukruthi Venukadasula

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Latin American Revolutions

Latin American RevolutionsCarys ThompsonAnukruthi Venukadasula

IntroductionSpanish colonies divided by class

Spanish authoritarian ruleincreasing and getting worseevents in Europe lead to Revolution

Violence among Latin Americans along lines of race, class, and ideology, accompanied the struggle against Spain in many places

Who Fought WhomPeninsularesofficials from Spain or Portugalgoverned Spanish colonies in the AmericasCriollos (creoles)American-born people of Spanish descentMajority of colonies populationestablished ranches and participated in trade with Spain and Portugal

Choosing SidesBoth sides needed their people to fight for them NativismNationalist leaders lured people into their side by promises of freedom, end of legal restrictions, and social advancement ideas influenced by Enlightenment, French Revolution, and Spanish liberalism promises not kept - lower classes (native americans and slaves) did not get benefittedimperial state was destroyed but colonial society stayed

Why They FoughtDiscriminationThough legally equal, peninsulares subjected the creoles under their ruleexclusion from high officeoffended by Spanish monarchys efforts to establish greater power by establish heavier taxes and tariffs in the 18th centurylimited trade

Creoles Inspiration from European Enlightenmentwanted popular sovereignty, republican government, and personal liberty wanted to remove the peninsulares from power but retain their own position in societyled to protests, declarations of independence, wars

Napoleons InvasionNapoleon invaded Spain and Portugal in 1808Spanish king Ferdinand VII was deposed and the Portuguese royal family was sent to exile in Brazil Latin Americans had to take action because of royal authoritys disarrayindependence for various states by 1826

Mexican Independence Movement1810Hunger for land and high food prices Peasant insurrectionindependence movement led by Miguel Hidalgo and Jose Morelos Creole landowners raised an army and crushed the insurgencybrought Mexico to a socially controlled independence in 1821 Miguel Hidalgo y CostillaFather of Mexican IndependencePublically proclaimed his revolt Sep.16, 1810date of Mexicos Independence DayImpactInitially a movement of independenceBecame a social and economic war against the upper classExecuted by conservative creoles

Simon Bolivarcreole elite born in 1783 in Caracas republican steeped in Enlightenment ideasexperienced many reversals and went into exile twiceInspired by George Washington1819: surprised and defeated Spanish army in Colombia Coordinated with leaders such as Jose de San Martin (Argentinian) and Bernardo OHiggins (Chilean)1825: creole forces had defeated Spanish rulers throughout South America

Goal: create confederation like U.S. with the former Spanish colonies 1820s: Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador formed a republic, Gran Colombia1830: Goal failed because of strong political and regional diff.Died of tuberculosis while en route to exile in Europe in 1830

Womens Role Upper class women gave and raised money for expenses and provided safe places for meetings

In Mexico, some women disguised themselves to help the men and others (working-class and peasant) worked as cooks and carriers

Women were not benefitted.

In Columbia, many were punished for disloyalty to crown and about 48 were executed

In Argentina, national recognition for women and modest improvement in educational opp.

But Latin American women excluded from political life and remained under control of men in their families Benefits for Women?AftermathDisunity of the ColoniesDistances between colonies, geographic obstacles, and lengthened colonial experience made it difficult to unite the Spanish colonies

Aftermath/Overall EffectsLatin American became the promising region till 19th centurynewly formed independent countries in both regionsplaces in Latin America became underdeveloped, impoverished, politically unstable, and dependent