Life Span Early & Middle adulthood Chapter 11 & 12

Life Span Early & Middle adulthood Chapter 11 & 12

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Life Span

Early & Middle adulthoodChapter 11 & 12

Early Adulthood

• Age– 20 – 40 (early)

• Stable

Physical Characteristics

Height & Weight

• Physical growth – Complete

Bone and Muscle development

• Peak bone mass– Age 35

• Injuries respond best to– Rest– Immobilization


• 3rd molars–Wisdom teeth

• Gingivitis• Dental visits

–Q 6 months

Cardiac System

• Cardiac output– Peak 20 – 30– Then declines

• Risk factors– Alcohol– Tobacco– h cholesterol diet

Respiratory System

• Peak function– 20 - 25

• Vital Capacity– i

• Elasticity– i

• Risk factors– Smoking

• Health promotion– Exercise

GI system

• Appetite– Unchanged

• Gastric secretions– i

• Basal Metabolic Rate– i

• Bowel management

Integumentary System

• Acne– i

• Cancer– h

Nervous System

• # neurons– i

• Brain size – i

• Reaction time (20 – 30)– h

• Visual acuity (25)– i– Presbyopia

• Hearing– Best at 20– Compensate

Reproductive system

• Peak capacity! • Infertility

Assisting conception

• Ovulation ?• qOd• Deep penetration• No lubricants• Stay on back

Motor development

• Peak • Decline 30 – 60• Greatest strength

– Back– Arms– Legs

Sexual development

• Romantic Love

Masters & JohnsonCycle of sexual response

1. Excitement2. Plateau3. Orgasm4. Resolution

Identity Achieved

• The search for identity begins at puberty, and continues through adulthood


Identity Achieved

• Ethnic Identity– in the U.S. and Canada 1/2 of the 18 –

25- year-olds are either children of immigrant or native-born Americas of African, Asian, Indian, or Latino descent


Identity Achieved

• Ethnic Identity–emerging adults meet many more

people of other backgrounds


Psychosocial development

• Intimacy– Sexual – Emotional

• Introspection• Trust


Humans have a need for belongingness –

• How are friendships formed?

Expanding social circles

• Similar life stage• Reciprocity• Compatibility• Respectability• Proximity

Friendship gender differences



Male• Shared

activities / interests

Sternberg: Theory of Love

• Triangle• 3 basic components

– 8 subtypes

Sternberg: Theory of Love

1. Intimacy– Emotional component– Involves liking and feelings of closeness

2. Passion– Motivational component– Drives attraction, romance and sex

3. Commitment,– Cognitive component– Long-term commitment

The combinations of love◦ Intimacy alone is described as liking◦ Passion alone is described as infatuation◦ The combination of intimacy and passion is called romantic

love. ◦ Commitment alone is called empty love◦ The combination of commitment and passion is referred to

as fatuous love (foolish and silly) ◦ The combination of commitment and intimacy is known as

companionate love, a secure and trusting partnership. ◦ A combination of all three components is known as

consummate love, (a relationship that is in the highest degree, near perfect).

◦ The absence of all three components results in non-love.

Labeling theory of passionate love

• Hatfield & Berscheid• Intense physiological arousal + • situational cues =• love

– is appropriate label for what is experienced.

Seeking a Spouse: Is Love Most Important?

• What do you look for?• What else matters?

– Emotional maturity– Character– Health– Education– Chastity– Attractiveness


Cohabitation vs. Marriage

• Cohabitation – couples living together without being married

• Reasons for choosing cohabitation over marriage:

• Why marry?

Cohabitation• Characteristics

– younger.– Whiter– Higher divorce rates.– Problems with assets!


Marriage Age:

• People are marrying older in US:– Median age for men first marriage – 27.– Median age for women first marriage – 25.

• Divorce rates increasing around the world (U.S. not so much since the 1990s)– 51%

What makes marriage work?

• Visible affection• Communicate little negativity• Similar interests• Agree on distribution of roles• View themselves as an interdependent




Increases in divorce are correlated with youthful marriage low educational level low income not having a religious affiliation divorced parents having a baby before marriage

Identity Achieved

• Vocational Identity– is a part of growing up–college is considered an important step

towards a career–a correlation between college

education and income has been evident… few unskilled jobs have been created in the 21st century


Choosing a CareerGinzberg’s Career Choice Theory

1.Fantasy period 2.Tentative period 3.Realistic period

Demographics of Higher Education

Who goes to college?–69% of white (high school graduates)

–61% of African American –47% of Hispanic

Demographics of Higher Education

Only around 40% of those who start college graduate 4 years later with a degree◦Although about half of those who do

not graduate will eventually finish, the other half never obtain a college degree

Demographics of Higher Education

More women that men attend college and graduate◦Women receive 133 bachelor’s degrees

for every 100 men receive◦This proportion continues to increase◦Why this gender gap in college


Developing maturity

• Control & Restraint

Cognitive development

• Objective• Wider perspective• Adult learners

Moral development

• Less absolutes• Respect others• Religion


• ♂– 2,700–3,000 cal/day

• ♀– 1,600-2,100 cal/day

Sleep & Rest

• 7-9 hours• Insomnia

Sleep Aids

• large meal at HS• Exercise afternoon• Routine• Relax• Bed for sex & sleep

Exercise & Leisure

• 3-5 time / week• 30 minutes


• Self & Family• Smoke detectors• CO detectors

Health promotion

Men• Testicular exam

Women• Breast exam• Pap smear

Exposure to carcinogens

• Tobacco• Alcohol• Chemicals• Viruses• Sun


• Eye• Hearing• Work


• 20-30% excess body weight


• management

Family Planning

• Birth control