Mayonnaise Margarine

Embed Size (px)


Teknik Kimia UNSRI Mayonaise dan Margarine

Text of Mayonnaise Margarine

  • Mayonnaise & MargarinePresented by:Kar-Chan ChoongJoseph DorsheimerBarry McLaughlinAnthony Zientek

  • IntroductionGeneral definitions of mayonnaise and margarineFood ChemistryRegular and low-fat mayonnaiseMargarineSurface Phenomena of mayonnaise and margarineBasic emulsion theory

  • Introduction (continued)Regular and low-fat mayonnaise formulationMargarine formulationProcessing ConsiderationsRegular and low-fat mayonnaiseMargarineConclusionsProduct cost and sales

  • History Margarine 1813

    Mayonnaise 1756

  • General DefinitionsMayonnaise is an emulsified semisolid food prepared from:Vegetable Oil(s)1 or both Acidifying Ingredients 1 or more Egg Yolk Containing Ingredients1 or more of the Optional IngredientsContains not less than 65% by weight of vegetable oil

  • General DefinitionsMargarine is the food in the plastic form or liquid emulsion containing:1 or more edible fats and/or oils or mixtures of these1 or more aqueous phase ingredients1 or more of the optional ingredients can be added to the aqueous phase ingredientsVitamin A in an amount not less than 15000 international units per poundContains not less than 80% fat as prescribed by the official methods of analytical chemists

  • SuppliersMayonnaiseKraftUnileverHellmanns, Best FoodsBetter BrandsAllen, NuggetShurfineShurfine, Shurfresh, Ultimate Choice, Price SaverPrivate Label Companies

  • SuppliersMargarineConAgra FoodsNabisco Tablespreads CompanyFleischmanns, Parkay, Blue Bonnet, Touch of Butter, Chiffon, Move Over ButterUnilever FoodsI Cant Believe Its Not Butter, Shedds Spread Country CrockADMGoldN FlavorVenturaSaffolaPrivate Label Companies

  • Food Chemistry of Regular MayonnaiseCH3(CH2)xCOOH Whole Eggs

    Egg Yolks H2O

    CH3COOH NaCl

    C12H22O11Lemon Juice(C10H16O8N2)-Ca-Na2

  • Food Chemistry of Low/Reduced-Fat MayonnaiseH2O CH3(CH2)xCOOHx-O-C6H8O2-O-C6H8O2-O-x C12H22O11

    Egg Whites CH3COOH

    NaCl (C6H10O5)xMustard (C35H49O29)xC6H5COONa (C10H16O8N2)-Ca-Na2

  • Food Chemistry of MargarineCH3(CH2)xCOOH P. H. Soy OilWhey NaCl(CH2)2CH(OH)2(COOR) (CH2)2CH(OH)1(COOR)2 C3H5(COOR)2POOOC5H14N CH3(CH)3COOK

    C6H5COONa H3PO4C36H60O2 C40H56

  • Analytical Methods for Determining CompositionMayonnaiseTotal: solids, fats, nitrogen, phosphorous, acidityEgg content, Emulsion stability, Specific Wt., Gums by Copper ReductionMargarineMoisture, Fat, Salt

  • Basic Emulsion TheoryHomogenous mixture of oil and water stabilized by an emulsifierTwo classificationsMacroemulsions- thermodynamically unstableMicroemulsions- thermodynamically stableInterfacial tensionNet interaction between dispersed phaseAddition of van der Waals and electrostatic forces

  • Emulsion TheoryEmulsifiersFunctionality direct result of chemistryConsists of 2 partsHydrocarbon chain lipophilic Polar group hydrophilicThree types of emulsionsTemporaryExample: oil mixed with vinegarSemi-PermanentExample: pourable salad dressingPermanentExample: Mayonnaise

  • Regular Mayonnaise FormulationAddition pathwayVinegar mixed with emulsifiersOil added slowlyStabilizers and PreservativesSpices and flavor agentsResults in closely packed foam of oil dropletsEmulsifiers usedLecithin, lipovitellin, livetin (all found in egg yolk)Lecithin also in soybean oil Major emulsifier: LecithinFunctional component: phospholipids PhospholipidsHydrophilic polar headLipophilic portion consists of 2 lipophilic tails

  • Regular Mayonnaise FormulationAdsorption of lipoprotiens to O/W interfaceDiffusion of native protein molecules to interfacePenetration of interface by these moleculesRearrangement of adsorbed molecules to state of lowest free energyIdeal EmulsionsDispersed droplets account for maximum of 74% volumeMayonnaiseDispersed phase accounts for 75% or more volume

  • Low-Fat Mayonnaise FormulationSame basic addition pathwayOther ingredients used to achieve low-fatExample: egg whitesInterfacial chemistry problemEmulsifiers found in egg yolk not as abundant in whitesEmulsifiersLecithin Added through addition of more soybean oilFine mustard particles

  • Margarine FormulationThermodynamically unstable hydrophobic effects. Continuously change toward equilibrium. Flocculation causes increase of viscosity.Emulsifiers applied: monoglycerides, lecithin.Emulsifiers prevent crystallization, improve plasticity and creaming texture and increase water holding ability.

  • Analytical Methods for Determining Colloidal PropertiesRheology provides valuable information for quality control, storage ability, sensory assessment of consistency, knowledge for design of texture and unit operation, Mayonnaise and margarine show viscoelastic properties. Model developed to describe the transient flow.Rheometrical studies of mayonnaise has been shown to be shearing thinning, viscoelastic and thixotropic.

  • Mayonnaise ProcessingEquipment SuppliersWaukesha Cherry Burrell Bran Luebbe

    Packaging Glass or PET?

    QC/QASalt, T.A. Viscosity, pH, Density, Micro

  • Margarine Process Flow Chart

  • Equipment Necessary for ProcessingMixing and Storage TanksCentrifugal PumpsPlate or Tubular Heat ExchangersHot Water SetsHolding TubeScraped Surface Heat ExchangerAgitated Worker UnitQuiescent Holding UnitExtrusion ValvesControl System

  • Operational Concerns GMPsSOPsSafety ApparelBootsEyewearLab coats

  • ConclusionsProduct chemistry and colloid properties are important in reducing production cost and to meet the market demands.Total sale in 2000 : $1,292.8 million (margarine), $747.45 million (mayonnaise)Regular mayonnaise ~$0.88/lb, low-fat mayonnaise ~$1.42lb.Regular margarine ~ $1.30/lb, low fat/cholesterol margarine ~ $2.00/lb.Flavor plays the biggest role despite healthiness.