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Slide 1Examine three terms
Motive – an inner state that energizes, activates or moves and that directs behavior towards goal.
Motivating – a term that implies that one person induces another to engage in action by ensuring that a channel to satisfy the motive becomes available and accessible to the individual.
Motivation – While a motive is an energizer of action, motivating is the channelisation and activation of motives, motivation is the work behavior itself.
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The set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behavior toward attaining a goal.
Key Elements
I want to meet my sales Quota.
Direction: Way towards goal .
Work Late, Make extra calls,Study Product Line.
Maintenance: Persistence, how long a person tries.
One week, a month and so on, not giving up easily.
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Motivation refers to the way in which urges, drives, desires, aspirations, striving or needs direct, control or explain the behavior of human being – McFarland.
Motivation is the process that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal-Stephen P. Robbins.
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Importance of Motivation
Motivation is important to organizations because in conjunction with ability and environment it determines performance.
P=f(M, A, and E).
Motivated employees are quality-driven.
It ensures retention of good employees.
It promotes creativity, spontaneity and innovative behaviour at work.
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5.The workforce will be better satisfied if management provides them with opportunities to fulfill their physiological and psychological needs.
6.The workers will cooperate voluntarily with the management.
7.The rates of labor turnover (attrition) and absenteeism will be low.
8.There will be good human relations at work as frictions will decrease.
9.The number of complaints and grievances will come down.
10.Low accident rate and wastage and scraps will also be less.
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Incentives and benefits
Net amount of valent intrinsic rewards
Equity comparison
Motivation to Work
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Making work interesting increases the likelihood of employees giving work their full attention and enthusiasm.
Some ways to make work more interesting are
job rotation,
Job rotation
Job rotation involves moving employees from job to job so as to give them more variety.
Job rotation requires that employees have relatively broad skills.
This means the supervisor and organization must provide for cross-training or training in the skills required to perform more than one job.
The opportunity to learn new skills can in itself motivate employees.
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Job enlargement means that duties are added to a job.
For example, in a factory a machine operator may be given the added task of setting up the machine.
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Job enrichment
Job enrichment is the incorporation of motivating factors into a job.
The kinds of factors that are considered to enrich a job are the ones Herzberg called motivators.
Specific factors include
more recognition for good performance, and
making jobs more challenging.
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Management by Objectives (MBO) is a process of negotiating periodic performance objectives between superiors and subordinates in an effort to cascade top management’s wishes throughout an organization. Frequently, objectives (MBOs) are set using numeric targets with deadlines for key process metrics, or just deadlines for projects.
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Employee empowerment is a strategy and philosophy that enables employees to make decisions about their jobs.
Employee empowerment helps employees own their work and take responsibility for their results.
The work organization has the responsibility to remove barriers that limit the ability of staff to act in empowered ways.
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Individual differences are the personal needs, values, and attitudes, interests and abilities that people bring to their jobs.
Job characteristics are the aspects of the position that determine its limitations and challenges.
Organizational practices are the rules, human resources policies, managerial practices, and rewards systems of an organization.
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Motivation causes goal – directed behavior.
Feeling of a need by an individual generates a feeling that he lacks something.
This lack of something creates tension in the mind of the individual.
Since the tension is not an ideal state of mind, the individual tries to overcome this by engaging himself in a behavior through which he satisfies his needs.
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He overcome his tensions in the favorable environment.
Behavior ends the moment tension is released.
Satisfaction of one need leads to feeling of another need.
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