NUCLEAR ELECTRONICSLABORATORY MANUAL
A TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ISSUED BY THEINTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, VIENNA, 1989
NUCLEAR ELECTRONICS LABORATORY MANUAL, 1989 EDITIONIAEA, VIENNA, 1989IAEA-TECDOC-530ISSN 1011-4289
Printed by the IAEA in AustriaOctober 1989
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The second edition of the Nuclear Electronics Laboratory Manual is a joint product ofseveral electronics experts who have been associated with IAEA activity in this field formany years. It is based on the experience of conducting twenty three training courseson nuclear electronics. In this respect, the contribution of many other scientists, andparticipants in these courses, are implicitly present in the final manuscript. The first editionwas published in 1984, and was used in a number of training courses on interregionalregional and national level. The deficiencies of the first edition are to a large extentcorrected in the present version. Many new experiments have been added, mainly on theadvanced technical level.
The manual does not include experiments of a basic nature, such as characteristics ofdifferent active electronics components. It starts by introducing small electronics blocks,employing one or more active components. The most demanding exercises instruct astudent in the design and construction of complete circuits, as used in commercial nuclearinstruments. It is expected that a student who completes all the experiments in the manualshould be in a position to design nuclear electronics units and also to understand thefunctions of advanced commercial instruments which need to be repaired or maintained.
The future tasks of nuclear electronics engineers will be increasingly oriented towardsdesigning and building the interfaces between a nuclear experiment and a computer. Thefirst edition of the manual outlined these developments by introducing a number ofexperiments which illustrate the principles and the technology of interfacing. However, itwas found that the complex topic of interfacing is too broad (and too important) to becovered in a superficial manner in the nuclear electronics manual. Therefore, the topic ofinterfacing is not included in the second edition. Instead, the IAEA will publish a separatemanual dealing exclusively with the problems of interfacing in nuclear experiments.
There are two other IAEA TECDOC publications that can be considered companions tothe present manual: TECDOC-363: Selected Topics in Nudear Electronics, and TEC-DOC-426 : Troubleshooting in Nudear Instruments. Together, these three documentscover a wide spectrum of electronics circuits, units and devices, and can be applied totraining in the field of nudear instrumentation and electronics.
The International Atomic Energy Agency has conducted training courses in nuclearelectronics since 1966. For the last 15 years, this has been a regular annual course, onan advanced level. During these years, several institutions in different countries, and anumber of scientists have contributed to the development of the methodology, asdemonstrated in the present Manual. Only some can be mentioned below.
The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany supported the IAEA efforts in thisfield by sponsoring a project entitled "Development of teaching aids for training in nuclearinstrumentation" in the period 1985-90.
The Divison of Educational Programs, at Argonne National Laboratory hosted three IAEAtraining courses in the years 1988-90. A workshop organized in Argonne in July 1989produced the final version of the Nuclear Electronics Laboratory Manual, and was to alarge extend sponsored by the Government of the USA, though the State Department.
Several engineers and scientists from many iAEA Member States have contributed to thefirst edition of the Manual, published in 1984. F. Manfred! (Italy), D. Camin (Argentina),J Lauwers (Belgium) and H. Kaufmann (IAEA) deserve special acknowledgement
The present, radically revised edition of the Manual is the product of thefoilowing experts:
The experiments on power supplies were expanded and revised by A. Burr (USA) whoadded several new ones, and contributed to othar parts of the Manual.
The digital part of the Manual was designed by J. Lopes (Portugal) who improved the oldexperiments, and developed a number of new exercises. His contributions are found alsoin the chapter on multichannel analyzers,
J. Pahor (Yugoslavia) contributed to many chapters of the Manual. His didactic talent isreflected in several experiments. In particular, he signs responsible for the chapter onanalog nuclear electronics, and on multichannel analyzers.
F. Clikeman (USA) was involved in preparation of experiments on radiation detectorswhich for the first time appear in the Manual.
J. Dolnicar (IAEA) have prepared several experiments on different topics, and hascoordinated the entire activities in Vienna and the United States which produced thepublication presented here.
PART ONE: Power supplies
Experiment 1.1:Experiment 1.2:Experiment 1.3:Experiment 1.4:Experiment 1.5:Experiment 1.6:Experiment 1.7:Experiment 1.8:Experiment 1.9:
Rectifier board with filter capacitorRegulated power supply using an operational amplifierAuxiliary power supply 15V/lOOmARegulated power supply using a monilithic voltage regulatorHigh voltage power supplyDC - DC convertersConstant current sourceLine conditionersSwitching reguiator
PART TWO: Analog circuits
Experiment 2.1 :Experiment 2.2:Experiment 2.3:Experiment 2.4:Experiment 2.5:Experiment 2.6:Experiment 2.7:Experiment 2.8:Experiment 2.9:Experiment 2.10:Experiment 2.11:Experiment 2.12:Experiment 2.13:Experiment 2.14:Experiment 2.15:Experiment 2.16:
DiscriminatorInverting and non-inverting amplifiersIntegrator with resetSignal and pulse generatorSample and holdDifferentiation and poie-zero cancellationComplex pole filteringBaseline restorerSimple spectrosccpy amplifierSelecting a FETPreamplifierNoise measurementsDigital setting of amplifier gainLinear gate with saturated transistorTime interval-to-amplitude conversionCoaxial cables and delay unes
PART THREE: Digital circuits
Experiment 3.1:Experiment 3.2:Experiment 3.3:Experiment 3.4:Experiment 3.5:Experiment 3.6:Experiment 3.7 :Experiment 3.8:Experiment 3.9:Experiment 3.10:Experiment 3.11:Experiment 3.12:
Standard input characteristics and interfacing of logic gatesSpecial inputs and outputs of logic gatesDynamic characteristics of logic gatesCombinational circuitsSoftware tools for programmable logicTiming circuits and oscillatorsLatches and flip-flopsCounters and shift registersLSI countersMemoriesSystematic design of sequential circuitsLogic analyzers
PART FOUR: Multichannel analyzers
Experiment 4.1: Pulse stretcherExperiment 4.2: Demonstration Wilkinson type ADCExperiment 4.3: Successive approximation ADCExperiment 4.4: Sliding scale correction of successive approximation ADCExperiment 4.5: Voltage to frequency converters
PART FIVE: Radiation detectors
Overview: Radiation detectionExperiment 5.1:Experiment 5.2:Experiment 5.3:Experiment 5.4:Experiment 5.5:Experiment 5.6:
Charged particle spectroscopyScintillation detectorsHigh resolution gamma detectorsHigh resolution X-ray detectorsNeutron detectionCoincidence experiment
PART SIX: Special projects
Project 6.1: EURO bin and power supplyProject 6.2: High voltage power supply: 0 - 2000 V, negativeProject 6.3: Geiger-Mueller ratemeterProject 6.4: Single channel analyzerProject 6.5: Wilkinson type converterProject 6.6: ADC computer linkProject 6.7: Staircase generatorProject 6.8: Spectroscopy amplifierProject 6.9: Spice: a simulation program for analog circuitsProject 6.10: Transfer of spectra data
INTRODUCTIONThe Laboratory Manual is intended to provide orientation in training in the field of nuclearelectronics. It gives information about the principles of nuclear electronics circuits whilesimultaneously introducing contemporary electronics technology. It is intended forstudents who have a background in basic electronics.
The exercises in this Laboratory Manual can be classified in several categories:
I. Each section of the Manual starts with some basic experiments selected in a way todemonstrate the building stones of nuclear electronic circuits. Thorough understandingof these basic construction blocks is considered essential for an engineer involved innuclear instrumentations and electronics. The completion of an experiment shouldrequire at the most three hours in the laboratory.
II. The complexity of the experiments increases in each part of the Manual until itreaches a high professional level by introducing experiments that require severallaboratory sessions for completion. Advanced tools, such as a logic analyzer, areintroduced.ill. Special Projects in the final part of the Manual are designed to show students how todesign and construct complete electron