Nuclear Power Plants Need Safeguarding Voluntary participation under IAEA controls ensures peaceful use
The world's nuclear power capacity may reach 25,000 mw(e ) . in 1970, about five times the capacity at the beginning of 1965, Dr. Sigvard A. Eklund told a seminar at Columbia University's School of Engineering and Applied Science. Dr. Eklund, a na-tive of Sweden, is director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, an autono-mous agency of the United Nations.
All of this capacity will be used for peaceful application of the atom (nu-clear power plants), director Eklund emphasizes. In this respect, it is of paramount importance, he thinks, that international safeguards be applied to power plants, to ensure peaceful use.
In 1957, IAEA started a program of voluntary participation in nuclear safe-guarding for countries having nuclear facilities, under the organization's con-trols. Japan's JRR-3 reactor was the first to be placed under IAEA super-vision, in 1959. (In Japan, it's now a national policy to use reactors for peaceful purposes only.) Norway's NORA reactor followed in 1960.
In the safeguard procedure, Dr. Eklund explains, the agency takes over the supervision of records and ac-counting. It also sends in interna-tional inspectors whose frequency of visits depends on the size and type of plant"its military potential, in other words." The agency has the right of continuous inspection where neces-sary, he adds.
The first industrial-size power plant, and the first privately owned one as well, to come under agency safe-guards was the Yankee Atomic Elec-tric Co.'s power station in Rowe, Mass., in August 1964. Since then, many others have joined. The British government also has offered to put one of its largest nuclear power plants (at Bradwell, Essex) under agency safe-guards. The offer is subject to ap-proval by IAEA's board of governors next February.
Most recent entry was Uruguay's 100 kw(e ) . research reactor last Sep-tember. The roster now boasts 46 re-actors in 23 countries, Dr. Eklund comments.
"To give an international body the right to inspect a peaceful domestic
Dr. Sigvard A. Eklund
Safeguards of paramount importance
activityand one that may in time be-come the cornerstone of industry in the country concernedhas meant break-ing a lot of new ground in interna-tional relations," he says. At IAEA's general conference in Tokyo last Sep-tember, the revised safeguards system of the agency was unanimously ap-proved by the member countries. "This might fairly be called something of a breakthrough in international co-operation and an important stride toward ensuring that atomic energy will one day be used for peaceful purposes only," he concludes.
$714 Billion GNP Predicted for 1966 Next year, gross national product will rise to $714 billion, from this year's $670 billion, according to Prudential Insurance Co. of America's 1966 eco-nomic forecast. C&EN's most recent estimate (Nov. 2, page 64) also pegged the 1965 GNP at $670 billion but put next year's at $717 billion.
Business capital spending will rise to $75.0 billion, adding $7.5 billion directly to GNP and stimulating other sectors of the economy, especially consumer buying. Consumer buying will add another $25 billion to GNP. Further contributors to the growth of GNP will be the Federal Government, and state and local governments, with an estimated $7.5 and $5.5 billion, respectively.
In the end, GNP's rise will be 6.5%. Of this, price inflation will claim 2.25%. The balance-4.25%-wil l be real growth, raising the living standards of American families.
California Escalates Antismog Program Board proposes to speed up installation of antismog devices
California will tighten the screws still further on automotive air pollution if recommendations just made to the state's Motor Vehicle Pollution Con-trol Board are adopted. Proposed by D. A. Jensen, the board's executive officer, the program under review would speed up the installation of emission control systems on used cars, extend their use throughout the state, and require a smoke-reducing additive in diesel fuel. A special session of the legislature, called for February 1966, to review California's antismog pro-grams, will hear MVPCB's recom-mendations.
Crankcase emission control devices are required now on 1955 and later model used cars in the 10 California counties where smog is most severe. These devices, which must be in place when a car is sold or transferred, are being installed at a gradual pace. No exhaust controls are legally required for used cars until two or more ap-proved devices are available for less than $65. There are currently no MVPCB approved add-on exhaust control devices. Mr. Jensen's proposal would drop the availability require-ment to one approved system, pro-vided competition exists through cross-licensing of its manufacture.
Mandatory installation of both kinds of add-on systemscrankcase and ex-haustshould be extended to all 58 of California's counties, he adds, and the schedule should be accelerated. A program of installation notices issued monthly for a given fraction of the state's registered cars could bring about effective used-car pollution con-trol in one to two years, by MVPCB's estimate. The present approach may take a decade.
One diesel fuel additive is now be-ing tested by MVPCB for its smoke-reducing effect, but results aren't in. No manufacturer has yet applied for approval of an add-on exhaust control unit under recently tightened perform-ance criteria.
Mr. Jensen, pointing out that fed-eral law doesn't provide for smog con-trol of used vehicles, said California should clarify its right to impose stricter auto controls than does the Federal Government.
26 C & E N NOV. 2 9, 1965
Nuclear Power Plants Need Safeguarding$714 Billion GNP Predicted for 1966
California Escalates Antismog Program