Product Placement in Bollywood Movies

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    Literature Review

    Definition and Meaning of Product Placement

    Most scholarly definitions of the concept aim to distinguish product placements from celebrity

    endorsement advertising and other public relation practices. Balasubramanian (1994) referred to

    it as a hybrid message a paid message aimed at influencing movie (or television) audiences via

    the planned and unobtrusive entry of a branded product into a movie 1. Recogniing product

    placement as an alternative route for traditional overt advertising! "arrh (199#) defined brand

    placement as a paid inclusion of branded products or brand identifiers through audio and visual

    means $ithin mass media programming%! noting that the term product placement is used

    interchangeably $ith brand placement.

    &ollectively described as ' a cooperative effort of advertisers and creator of entertainment

    products in $hich trademared goods are embedded into popular entertainment products in order

    to encourage their consumption! overriding entertainment and artistic concerns. Brand

    placement is not restricted to movies! it covers television! video games! online videos! plays etc.

    espite the plethora of channels! the principal purpose of brand placement remains unchanged*

    generating additional finance for the author! the medium or the production and creating a

    platform for the advertiser to introduce brand references into the consumers+ e,perience of the

    entertainment (-ehu and Bressoud %/0).

    1 Balasubramanian! iva ". 2Beyond 3dvertising and ublicity* 5ybrid Messages and ublic olicy 6ssues.2

    7ournal of 3dvertising %0.4 (1994)

    2"arrh! 7ames 3. 28ffects of brand placements in motion pictures.2 roceedings of the 199 &onference of the3merican 3cademy of 3dvertising.:

    3-ehu! 7ean;Marc! and 8tienne Bressoud. 2

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    Types of Product Placements

    =sing integration and implicitness! +3ustos > eguin4classify product placements (-) into;

    Implicit PPL* 3n implicit - is one $here the brand! the firm or the product is present

    $ithin the program $ithout being formally mentioned. 6t plays a passive! conte,tual role. 6n

    the implicit - the logo! the brand name! or the name of the firm appear $ithout a clear

    demonstration of product benefits. ?or instance inRa.One (%11)!

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    Evolution of Product Placements in !ollywood

    "no$n to reflect and shape societal trends! the oldest instance of product placement is seen in

    the movie Shree 420(19) $here RaG "apoor+s entry scene includes a prominent &oca;&ola

    banner overhead. Hther e,amples of early years include Mobil in Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi (19#)

    and RaGdoot Mortorcycle inBoy(19/). he practice piced up pace post liberaliation as a

    rising middle class! proliferation of modern themes and increased targeting improved audience

    receptiveness to$ards product placements.!il "o #agal $ai (199/) featured several brands such

    as epsi! -evis and "iller 7eans. he real game;changer $as "aal (1999)! main characters $ere

    sho$n not only drining &oe but also mentioning it in multiple conversations and associating it

    $ith themes of friendship and love. his $as supposed to have fetched ubhash Ihai nearly 4J

    of the budget in a time $hen producers $ere battling $ith increased production costs and $ere

    e,ploring alternate sources of fundingK.

    "no$n for escapist and e,hibitionist fare! the formulaic approach allo$s easy avenues to place

    brands effectively. ongs and dance provide filmmaers a $ay to sho$case brands! as $as seen

    in the filmKu%h Ku%h $ota $ai (1999) $here a single song included 1 brands. More recently!

    films try and use brands already endorsed by the leading actors. ?or e,ample! 5yundai cars in

    hah Ruh "han+sRa Ne Bana !i &odi (%#) and!on 2 (%11). -ately! brands have been

    incorporated into the plot of the movies! from the protagonist $oring in the fashion magaine

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    Process of Product Placements

    hree $ays in $hich - can occur*

    6t simply happens. his is done only to add greater credibility to the storyLscenes

    6tCs arranged! and a certain amount of the product serves as compensation

    ?inancial compensation

    6t began as a do;it yourself e,ercise before dedicated agencies started sourcing both $ays. Most

    of the discussions revolve primarily around the scenes! conte,t! focus and duration of the brand

    visibility.

    T"eoretical underpinnings

    3ccording to (Russell 199#/) product placement can be classified on the basis of three

    dimensions visual! auditory and plot connection.

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    Advantages of Prod!t P"a!e#ents

    E$%osre

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    n

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    ,rand

    here can only be t$o situations in $hich the combination of modality and plot connections can

    be [email protected] Match and Mismatch. he combination can said to be a matchC $hen the

    auditory method of placement is higher in use than the visual and the brand names are audible in

    narration and is deeply lined $ith the story $hereas the combination can said to be a mismatchC

    $hen the visual method of placement of brands is higher in application than auditory in plot

    connection. "ey e,amples of a match includeBaghan (%%) $hich creatively integrated varied

    brands such as 3rchies! 6&6&6 Ban! ?ord and ide into the story. ?ailures include films such as

    Salaam(E()sh* (%#) $here the camera ooms more on the brand 6ra 7e$els rather than the

    Ge$elry and +aadein ,200- $hich had an anti;materialism theme contrasted against multiple

    product placements.

    9 &rai! ?ergus! 6.M and Robert .-. (19/%) D-evels of rocessing* 3 ?rame$or for Memory Research!: 7ournalof

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    Mar#et tructure

    Bolly$ood movies can be categoried on the basis of follo$ing three factors*;

    Ienres! -ead 3ctors and Budget

    $% &enres

    ifferent types of genres in Bolly$ood movies are;

    i% 'ction(in this genre of movies the protagonist usually ends up in a desperate situation

    due to a risy turn taen. 8.g.!/%tion &a%son(%14)!Ro1dy Rathore(%1%)!!hoom

    (%10)

    ii% 'dventure( here the story is about a Gourney taen by the protagonist to reach a

    destination $here the protagonist encounters a lot of obstacles to reach hisLher

    destination. 8.g.!E Chalis Ki 3ast 3o%al(%/)!indagi Na 'ilegi !oara(%11)

    iii% )omedy(these types of movies are intended to mae the audience laugh through a series

    of funny or comical events. 8.g.!&aane Bhi !o +aaron(19#%)!Khosla Ka Ghosla(%K)!

    $era #heri(%)

    iv% )rime(it sho$s story $here a crime has already been committed or is being committed.

    8.g.! Satya(199#)! Gangs O5 6asseypur ) 7 )) (%1%)! Shootout at 3ohand1ala(%#)

    v% *antasy(here the story is mostly about supernatural or a magic. 6t may also include

    elements lie science fiction in it as $ell. 8.g.!#K(%14)!/8ooa(1991)!&oer(%1%)

    vi% +istorical(it is usually a biography! period piece etc. $here a story about a real event or a

    person is sho$n in a te,tboo manner. 8.g.! /shoa "he Great(%1)!'angal #andey(%)!

    "he 3egend o5 Bhagat Singh(%%)

    11 | P a g e

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    vii% +orror(here audience is deliberately tried to frighten or scare through use of shoc!

    suspense or shoc. 8.g.!$aunted ( !(%11)!Ragini ''S 2(%14)!Kaal(%)

    viii% Mystery( the story evolves through a series of mysterious events and the suspense is

    prevailed till the very last. 8.g.! "alaash (%1%)!Kahaani (%1%)ix% Romantic(it mostly involves a story about the protagonist+s relationships! engagements

    etc. he maGority of these films features mutual attraction and love bet$een a man and a

    $oman. 8.g.! Saathiya(%%)! Cheeni Kum(%/)!Ku%h Ku%h $ota $ai(199#)

    x% Drama( these movies portrays realistic character in a serious! plot driven presentations

    involving intense character development and interaction. 8.g.! Shor in the City (%11)!

    !(!ay(%10)! Shanghai(%1%)

    xi% Musical(these cinematic forms are those that emphasie full;scale scores or song and

    dance routines in a significant $ay. 5ere the narrative is mostly centered on musical or

    dance performance. 8.g.!3ondon !reams(%9)!Ro% On9(%#)!Ro%star(%11)

    $% Lead actors

    Most of the Bolly$ood movies are highly influenced by the lead actors in featuring in it*

    i. uper [email protected] ii. [email protected] iii. Ae$ &omers

    ,% !udgeti. 5igh [email protected] ii. [email protected] iii. -o$ Budget

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