The Cold War: Political and Military Tensions between US and USSR: 1946-1991

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Slide 2 The Cold War: Political and Military Tensions between US and USSR: 1946-1991 Slide 3 Origins of the Cold War: 1. The Russian Civil War; (1918-1920)tension between US and USSR US backed White Army Lenins Red Army took control 2. Casablanca Conference: Invasion of Italy 3. Worldwide spread of communism Slide 4 US and USSR both had very different views on the world and their own interests Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [Iron Curtain] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world- wide Communism GOAL Containment of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. Slide 5 USSR: 1. Wanted to rebuild their country Stalingrad, Leningrad, other cities devastated Stalin believed German reparations were due to his country 2. Wanted to Protect their own interests 3. Wanted to keep Germany weak Established border/satellite nations friendly to Communist goals Under soviet control 4. Believed that Communism was a superior economic system and would replace capitalism Slide 6 US: 1. Wanted democracy and economic opportunities to all nations in Europe and Asia 2. Wanted markets for American goods. 3. Believed that strong economies prevent war US was convinced that the Depression allowed Hitler to come to power and that sealing off nations to trade causes wars Slide 7 Cold War: pitted the US against the USSR for control of World trade and markets 1 st World- US and its allies 2 nd World- USSR and its allies 3 rd World- Developing nations that USSR and US both wanted as allies Competition for these 3 rd world nations led to wars and lasting animosity towards the USSR and the US US and USSR never went to war directly against each other Used 3 rd world nations to gain ground and push own agendas Slide 8 1.China - 1945 to 1960s 2. Italy - 1947-1948 3. Greece - 1947 to early 1950s: 4. The Philippines - 1940s and 1950s 5. Korea - 1945-1953 6. Albania - 1949-1953 7. Eastern Europe - 1948-1956 8. Germany 1950s 9. Iran 1953 10. Guatemala - 1953-1954 11. Costa Rica - Mid-1950s 12. Syria - 1956-1957 13. Middle East - 1957-1958 14. Indonesia - 1957-1958 15.Western Europe - 1950s and 1960s: 16. British Guiana - 1953-1964 17. Soviet Union - Late 1940s to 1960s 18. Italy - 1950s to 1970s 19. Vietnam - 1950-1973 20. Cambodia - 1955-1973 21. Laos - 1957-1973 22. Haiti - 1959-1963 23.Guatemala 1960 24. France/Algeria - 1960s 25.Ecuador - 1960-1963 26.The Congo - 1960-1964 27.Brazil - 1961-1964 28. Peru - 1960-1965 29.Dominican Republic 1960- 1966 30.Cuba - 1959 to 1980s 31. Indonesia 1965 32. East Timor 1975 33. Ghana 1966 34.Uruguay - 1964-1970 35. Chile - 1964-1973 36. Greece - 1964-1974 37. Bolivia - 1964-1975: 38. Guatemala - 1962 to 1980s: 39. Costa Rica - 1970-1971 40. Iraq - 1972-1975: 41. Australia - 1973-1975: 42.Angola: 1975 to 1980s 43.Zaire - 1975-1978: 44. Jamaica - 1976-1980: 45. Seychelles - 1979-1981: 46. Grenada - 1979-1984: 47.Morocco - 1983: Suriname - 1982-1984: 48. Libya - 1981-1989: 49. Nicaragua - 1981-1990: 50.Panama - 1969-1991: 51.Bulgaria 1990 52.Albania 1991 53.Iraq - 1990-1991: 54.Afghanistan 1979-1992 55.El Salvador - 1980-1994: 56.Haiti- 1986-1994 57.Iraq- 2003-2011 58.Afghanistan: 2001-2011 Slide 9 Yalta Conference: Churchill, Stalin and FDR: Feb 1945 Slide 10 Yalta: Plan the postwar world 1.Divide up Germany to rebuild Four Zones of Occupation Britain, France, US and USSR Berlin would be divided the same Problems: Berlin was in the USSRs zone USSR wanted reparations and Germany weakened Slide 11 2. Elections in Poland: US and Britain wanted it free to choose own govt USSR wanted it to remain Soviet occupied and set up communist govt Compromise: Soviets would set up govt but promised to hold free election in the near future 3. United Nations Slide 12 Truman becomes president April 13, 1945 Strongly anti- communist Believed that WWII had begun b/c Britain had appeased Hitler We must stand up to the Soviets Slide 13 Potsdam Conference: July 1945: Truman and Stalin Stalin continues to insist on German reparations Truman convinces USSR to accept resources (mainly agricultural) from other Zones instead of monetary reparations Soviets are already stripping their zone of all resources Truman insists on free elections in Poland Let it slip that US had successfully tested the Atomic bomb Slide 14 Soviets begin to dominate Eastern Europe: USSR Begins to establish satellite nations Poland, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania; all dominated by USSR and Soviet- friendly leaders in charge East Germany is controlled by USSR Yugoslavia becomes communist but not a true satellite Slide 15 The Iron Curtain From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946 Slide 16 Feb 1946: Stalin predicts ultimate triumph of communism over capitalism March 1946: Truman calls on Americans to stop the spread of communism Both sides took this as a threat; beginning of Cold War Slide 17 The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [Iron Curtain] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world- wide Communism GOAL Containment of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] proxy wars Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact] Slide 18 The Early Cold War Years: Containment Theory: to recognize nations already lost to Soviets but prevent it from spreading further How to end communism: 1. Communist System was flawed; would decay and crumble from within 2. Aggressive actions needed for taking back Eastern Europe Slide 19 Truman Doctrine [1947] Protect Turkey and Greece from Communists (1 st challenge to containment) Britain had been giving aid, but could not continue Truman asked Congress for $400 million to aid Greece and Turkey Wanted to give people a choice in their govt, not have one forced upon them The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressuresWe must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. Slide 20 Marshall Plan [1948] 1. European Recovery Program. 2. Secretary of State, George Marshall 3. The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it.This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. 4. $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe; also extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected]. 5. Goal: help war-torn nations so they might create stable democracies and achieve economic recovery Results: Economies recovered; trade increased; Communist influences dropped off Slide 21 Berlin Crisis: 1948: US, Britain and France combined German occupation Zones: Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) They had become convinced that Stalin was not going to re-unify Germany 1949 Soviets created German Democratic Republic (East Germany) Berlin lay in Soviet Zone But West Berlin was considered part of West Germany. 1000s of Eastern Europeans fled to West Berlin to flee Communist control Slide 22 Stalin also convinced that no reparations were coming June 1948 Berlin is blockaded Stalin hoped Allies would abandon Berlin Truman wanted West Berlin free, but did not want a war Berlin Airlift: 11 months; hourly food and supplies flown into West Berlin. Showed US commitment to containment and to Berlin May 1949, Stalin lifted blockade Slide 23 Berlin Airlift Slide 24 Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49) Slide 25 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) United States United States Belgium Belgium Britain Britain Canada Canada Denmark Denmark France France Iceland Iceland Italy Italy Luxemburg Luxemburg Netherlands Netherlands Norway Norway Portugal Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain 1983: Spain US also joined SEATO, OAS, etc.. Slide 26 Warsaw Pact (1955) }U. S. S. R. }Albania }Bulgaria }Czechoslovakia }East Germany }Hungary }Poland }Rumania Slide 27 China falls to Communists : Civil War between Mao Zedongs Communists and Chaing Kai Sheks Nationalists 1949: China becomes communist: Peoples Republic of China Nationalists flee to Taiwan and establish the Republic of China US and UN recognize the nationalists as official govt Slide 28 Maos Revolution: 1949 Who lost China? A 2 nd } Power! Slide 29 The Arms Race: }The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. }Now there were two nuclear superpowers! }1952: US successfully tests Hydrogen bomb Slide 30 US creates the Federal Civil Defense Administration info on how to survive a nuclear attack Slide 31 The Korean War: A Police Action (1950-1953) Korea had been occupied by Japan since Russo- Japanese War in 1905. After WWII American and Soviet forces entered Korea to disarm Japanese troops and set up a new govt 38 th Parallel divided the country: USSR/Communist to the North US/ Democracy to the South Both countries agreed to withdraw from the country and did so in 1949 Domino Theory? Slide 32 USSR trained and supplied N. Korean army June 25, 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea United Nations authorized the use of force to protect the South Korean Government. UN was able to do this b/c USSR was boycotting, could not use veto power Slide 33 N. Korean troops had almost all of Korea when MacArthur and his United Nations troops attacked at two points on Sept 15, 1950 Pusan and Inchon Slide 34 MacArthur quickly pushed N.K. troops back across 38 th parallel and swept them back almost to Chinese border China responds by sending 1000s of troops into N. Korea and pushes UN troops back across the 38 th parallel Slide 35 MacArt