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  • What is internal parenthetical citation? How you tell your reader that you borrowed information from another source. In short, it protects you from committing plagiarism. For example: Medieval Europe was a place of raids, pillages, slavery and extortion (Townsend 10). So, (Townsend 10) tells your reader that the quotation comes from page 10 of a work by Townsend. Then, readers could find the complete publication in your works cited page: Townsend, Robert M. The Medieval Village Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.
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  • When do I use internal parenthetical citation? Use it: After a quote or partial quote After others ideas, even if in your own words. After others opinions, even if in your own words Little known facts Essentially, use after every note Do NOT use it: After your own opinions and interpretations Well-known facts (common knowledge) ex. The Steelers did not win the Super Bowl last year.
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  • Where do I put the internal parenthetical citation? Place citation at the end of the sentence containing the information being documented. Citations appear at the end of the sentence, but before the end punctuation. Place citation inside of (parenthesis) Ex. Medieval Europe was a place of raids, pillages, slavery and extortion (Townsend 10).
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  • How do I include internal parenthetical citation? Here is a list of the most common types of Parenthetical Citation: All Information Present = (Author Page #) No Page number = (Author np) No Author= (Title Page number) No Author/Page number = (Title np) Long Quote= (same as above)
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  • How do I cite by title? Use the first word of the title and include a page number (when possible) Make sure the first word of the citation is the same as first word of the original title. Ex. (Some 647) = Some Factual Errors in Steinbecks portrayal of Oklahoma When citing a title of a book, put the title in italics. Ex. (The 3) (if your source is The Cat in the Hat) When citing the title of an article, put the title in quotes Ex. (Fighting 3) (if your source is Fighting Freedom
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  • Can I use more than 1 note in a single sentence? YES!! You may use more than 1 note in a single sentence as long as it is appropriate. Like all citations, place it [citation] at the end of the sentence and in a single parenthesis. Citations should be in the order they are used in the sentence. Separate citations with a semicolon ; Ex. (Tyler 38; Derek 4; Cook 89).
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  • What is a long quote and how do I cite it? Long quotes are 4 or more typed lines long Indent long quotes 1 TAB or 10 spaces from the left margin Do NOT use double quotation marks for a long quote Use a SINGLE if the information is dialogue Introduce a long quote with a colon (:) Place the citation at the end of the long quote (period before parenthesis) Do NOT end a paragraph with a long quote Ex. At the conclusion of Lord of the Flies, Ralph and the other boys realize the horror of their actions: The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island (186).
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  • Are there any special rules? YES!! If you have 2 or more consecutive notes that are from the same source, use the following rule: Place the documentation after the last note. If you have information of your own in between, it starts over NOTE: This only works if the notes are coming from the same source and page.
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  • Do you have any questions? If you have any questions regarding internal parenthetical citation, please ask me individually. Do not avoid these questions. Missing citations result in a failing grade. MAKE SURE YOU HAVE A CITATION AFTER EVERY NOTE!!!!