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Religion in Parenting: Effects of Parental Religion on the Decision to Parent and Parenting Practices for Pre- School and School Age Children Katherine J. Partridge Regent University

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  • 1. Religion in Parenting: Effects of Parental Religion on the Decision to Parent and Parenting Practices for Pre-School and School Age ChildrenKatherine J. Partridge Regent University

2. Religion and ParentingOverview Literature Review Case Study Importance Constructs Theoretical Framework Method Participants Measures Procedures 3. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 4. Case Study 5. Importance As of 2008 it is estimated that over 75% of the United States population reported a Christian affiliation (United States Census Bureau, 2012) One study found 21% of parents would seek parenting advice from clergy and this number increased for parents who claim to be Christian and use corporal punishment (Taylor, Moeller, Havmas, & Rice, 2013). Several calls have been made to research the relationship between religion and the family (Mahoney et al., 2001; Holden, 2001; Mahoney, 2010). 6. Constructs Religious Variables Religion Spirituality (Zinnbauer & Pargament, 2005) No distinction for this study (Pargament, 1999) Measurement Gorsuch (1990) BAV Model Beliefs Attitudes Values Parenting Adaptive Parenting Maladaptive Parenting Abusive Parenting 7. Theoretical Framework Relational Spirituality Phases of family life Formation Maintenance Transformation Methods of religious influence Relationship with the divine Investment in spiritual properties Relationship with spiritual communities 8. Formation Relationship with the divine Investment in spiritual properties Relationship with religious communities 9. Hypothesis 1a) The level of religiousness related with the decision to parent a child will be related to measured religious variables b) Religiousness related to the decision to parent a child will be higher as the method of becoming a parent is more involved. 10. Maintenance Relationship with the divine Investment in spiritual properties Relationship with religious communities 11. Transformation Relationship with the divine Investment in spiritual properties Relationship with religious communities 12. Hypothesis 21) Parental religiousness along with their view of God in the parenting role will be predictive of consistency, appropriateness, expectations, monitoring, harshness, and positive techniques in parenting which will be moderated by the level of conservatism. More specifically, it is expected that a) high parental religiousness and view of God in the parenting role will be predictive of more consistency, appropriateness, and monitoring as conservatism increases. b) By contrast, those who are high in religiousness and view of God in the parenting role will decrease on monitoring, expectations, and consistency as conservatism decreases, however, positive practices will increase. 13. METHOD 14. Participants Target Population 250 parents of children ages 2-12 Recruitment Parent-Training Clinical Trial Participants Outreach Events Compensation Gift Card Drawing 15. Measures Parental Religiousness Global Religious Behavior 5 global religious behaviors rated on a 5pt-likert scale Religious Beliefs Christian Conservativism Scale (Hill & Hood, 1999) 7 items rated on a 5pt-likert scale Religious Attitudes Attitudes Toward Christianity Scale (Francis, 1992) 7 items rated on a 5pt-likert scale Religious Values Sacred Qualities of Parenting Scale (Mahoney et al., 1999) 10 items rated on a 7pt likert scale Manifestation of God in Parenting Scale 14 items rated on a 7pt-likert scale 16. Measures Contd. Parenting Decision to become a parent Age of each child Method of becoming a parent How much religion influenced decision to parent each child rated on a 5pt-likert scale Parenting Practices Inventory (WebsterStratton, Reid, & Hammond, 2001) 72 items rated on a 7pt-likert scale Seven subscales (Harsh Discipline, Harsh for Age, Inconsistent Discipline, Appropriate Discipline, Positive Parenting, Clear Expectations, and Monitoring) 17. Procedure Religion and the decision to parent a child Exploratory analysis Correlations Religion and Parenting Practices Hierarchical Regression Step 1: Demographic variables Step 2: Religious variables (Behaviors, Conservativism, Attitudes) Step 3: Religious values variables Outcome Variables Each of the 7 subscales will be used as the outcome variable resulting in 7 different regression models 18. Comments 19. References Barkley, R. A. (2013). Defiant Children: A clinicians manual for assessment and parent training (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. Bottoms, Nielson, Murray, & Filipas. (2003). Religion-related child physical abuse: Characteristics and psychological outcomes. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma, 8(1-2), 87-114. doi: 10.1300/J146v08n01_04 Brody, G. H., Stoneman, Z., & Flor, D. (1994). Religion's role in organizing family relationships: family process in rural, two-parent African American families. 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