เซลล์ของสิ่งมีชีวิต(Hand out)

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  • 1. 17F F2-5 F F Janssen F FFF F FF2Robert HookeFFFF FFF F F F F F F F F F FFFFF F F F F FFF F "cell" F F FFF FFFF FF F F F F F F F F F F 1 2( F)F FFF Leeuwenhoek F F F F F F F F F F F F 270 F F F F F F FF3 F F F FF FF F F F F F 1.F F FF F F F F F FF F F F Theodor Schwann F 2.FF FFF F F F F FFF F F (Cell theory) 3.F F F F F FF F FF " (All( F F animals and plants are composed of cells and products)F ) F F F FF F 3 4 1

2. F F FF , F ( F , , ,,F ) Prokaryotic cells F F F F F F F 5 F F F F 5 F F F F F F F F F0.2-10, ,F F , ER, ( F F ) Ukaryotic cells F F F F FF F FF F 10-10070 S80 SF F ER 70 SF F F F , F , F 1 F , F F , , F F F F 5 6 F F F F 3 F1.2.3. F F F F 7 8 2 3. (Nucleus) 9 10Animal Cell Structure (Nucleus) (Nucleus) ( F ) FF F F 2 F (Nucleoplasm)F F F F 1.F (Nuclear membrane)F2FF 2F(lipid bilayer) (Nucleolus)F F FFF F (Nuclear pore) F FF FF F DNARNA F FF F FFF FF (Chromatin)DNAF F F FFFF FChromosome1112 3 4. (Cytoplasm) F 2 F F (Organelle) F (Cytosol)1314 (Endoplasmic Reticulum : ER)(Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum : RER) FF FF FF F F F FFF F F F F F 1. (Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum : RER)F F F 2.(Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum : SER) RER SER F F 1516 4 5. (Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum : SER) (Ribosome) F FF F F F FF F F F F FF RNA F F F FFFF F Ca2+F FF , F , , F 17 18F (Golgi Complex)(Lysosome) F F FFFF F ER F F F F FFF F F FFF F F FF , , FF F F FF , F F F F F F F FF19 205 6. (Vacuole)(Mitochondria)FFF F FF ATP contractile vacuole FFFFF F F FF (Cristae) food vacuoleFFF (matrix) F F F F sap vacuole F 2122(plastid)(chloroplasts) FF (Chromoplast) FF(chlorophyll) F FF F F FFFF 1. (stroma)FF F F FF F F (dark reaction) DNAF (Leucoplast)RNA FFF2.F (thylakoid) (grana)FF F F FF FFFF FF F FF F (intergrana) 23FF(grsnum) 246 7. (Centriole)CytoskeletonF F F FF F F FF F F F F FF F F F FF FFFFF (microtubule) F 9 FF F 3FF F 31. microfilamentF2. microtubule(Centrosome)F F FF F 3. intermediate filament25 26 Microfilament or Actin filament Microtubule F F (tubulin) FF (actin) FF F , , , F F FFF F ,FF FIntermediate FilamentF F (cytokinesis)F F 4 8F F F27 287 8. F F F F F 1 2 (Cytosol) F 50-60%F 3 F F F cyclosis F 2930(cell wall)F F F F F F F F F F F F F FF F F(murein peptidoglycan)F (chitin)F FF F F FF (pectin) F FF FF FFF F FF F FF F F2 F F(plasmodesmata) 31328 9. F F (cell membrane plasma membrane) F F F F F F F F2 F (semipermeable membrane) F phospholipid bilayer () F FFFF F F FFF ( F ) F FF Cholesterol, Glycolipid, Glycoprotein, Protein F FF F F F F Fluid mosaic model 33 34 F F F FFF F FF F( F) F(diffusion) F F F(facilitated diffusion)FFFFF FF F F FFFF F F F F [Sol. F] = [Sol.F] F F [Sol. F] > [Sol.] F F F, [Sol. F] < [Sol. F]35 369 10. F F FF FFFF (active transport) F2F FF F Exocytosis FFFF F F F F FF F F F ATPEndocytosisF F F Phacocytosis FEating FF F FFF FF Pinocytosis Drinking FF F F F FF37 38F F FF3 Gap junction F F FF1.(reception) FF F F FF plasmodesmataF F F F F F FF F F FFFFFF FF2.FFF FF FF F F F F F F FFF39 4010 11. F F FF ( F)F F F 2F3. F F (karyokinesis) F (cytokinesis) F F FF F F F2F FF F F F F1. F(mitosis) FFF FF F FF FFFF FF F F2. F(meiosis) FFF F FF F 4142FF FF ( F)F FF F F F F F F F F (cell cycle) F FFF FFFF F F FF(2n 2nn n) F F 2F F FF2FF F FF 1.F (interphase)F 2.F (mitotic phaseM phase),, ,,F F F F5F (interphase),(prophase),(metaphase),(anaphase)(telophase)434411 12. FF ( F) FF( F)FFF F F3FM (M phase) F FG1F F DNAFF F FF F F DNAFF 4 FSF DNA (DNA replication) FF DNA 1 1 FFF F F (centromere) F (kinetochore)FG2F DNA FF FF 4546FF ( F) FF( F) 1. (prophase) 2. (metaphase) F F FF FF1 F 2 (equatorial plate)F F (centrioles)F F F F FF , FF FF F F F (microtubule) FF(karyotype)F F (mitotic spindle) F (spindle fiber)FF F F F F F (Aster)F FF F FF (polar cap)4748 12 13. FF( F) FF( F) 4.(telophase) 3. (anaphase) F FF FFF (daughter chromosome)FF FFF F FFF2n 4n F F 2 FFF(V), (J) (I) F1.F FF F2 FF FFF FFF F F2 F F2.FF F F F(cell plate)F F F 2 FF F 49F FF 50FF FF( F)FF F F F 1.F(meiosis I) FF F 2 FF F F FF F4 F F F F FF I (interphase I) F F FF F (haploid) nFFFFFFFF F F FFFFFFFF F F5152 13 14. F F( F)F F ( F) I (prophase I) F F FI (mataphase I) F F F -FF F F - F(homologous chromosome) F F (synapsis) FF FF (bivalant) FI (anaphase I)F F F F F2 F F 1F 4F F F F2 F F -F F (crossing over) FFF (variation) F F F(chiasma) FF F - F 2 FF F F - FF F F I (telophase I) 2 F F F -F F 53F F F F 54 F F( F)F F ( F) 2. F(meiosis II) F I (mataphase I) FF F F FF II (prophase II) F2F F F 2 F F I (anaphase I) F F FF F F FF F F 2F FII (metaphase II)F FFFF (variation) F II (anaphase II) FF FF F F FF F F FFII (terophase II)F F I (telophase I)2 F F F F F F F FF F F F 552 F F F F4 F FF F 56 14