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  • Current Research on Media Education:From School Children to Senior Citizens

    Heli RuokamoProfessor, Faculty of Education (FoE)Director, Centre for Media Pedagogy (CMP)University of Lapland (UoL), FINLAND

    Rethinking Media Education22 Oct 2015, Milano Catholic University, Italy


  • Background


  • BackgroundCentre for Media Pedagogy (CMP)Established at the beginning of 2001, in order to support teaching, research and development in the areas of media education and the educational use of ICTsPart of the FoE at the beginning of 2003, officially established 2005Coordinates and participates:- teaching, - research and - development projects- of the media education and - the educational use of the information andcommunication technologies (ICTs) Approx. 10 staff members

  • BackgroundAreas of multidisciplinary research:

    New pedagogical models and pedagogically appropriate use of ICT in teaching and learning

    Online and mobile learning, simulations and virtual reality, digital videos, playful learning environments, use of ICT in all areas of life by people of different ages living in rural areas

    Design, implementation and evaluation of the processes

    Covers 3 themes of ME curriculum:1. Media in teaching and learning2. Median in society3. Media and psychosocial wellbeing

  • Pedagogical Models by CMP

  • The socio-constructivist and socio-cultural perspectives (e.g. Vygotsky, 1978; Slj, 1999; 2004; 2005; Wells & Claxton, 2002)

    Learning is not related only to academic achievements, but also to all actions that take into account the person as a whole body, mind and spirit and the role of cultural tools and artifacts

    Learning is seen as a tool-dependent and metaphorical concept (Slj 2005; 2006), and is defined through the concept of knowledge co-creation (Kangas et al. 2006), which

    refers to knowledge co-construction with an assumption that learning no longer repeats what is already known, but creates something new (Slj 2006)

    Learning Theorethical Framework

  • Pedagogical ModelsDevelopment of pedagogical models (cf. Joyce & Weil, 1980) is still crucial

    teachers are not yet fully aware of how to use technology in pedagogically appropriate ways

    they need functional examples

    An effective pedagogical model will make teachers aware of the different means available to them

    it will ensure that students benefit from a more meaningful learning experience

  • Teaching ModelCan be defined as:

    a plan or pattern that can be used to shape curriculums (long-term courses of studies),

    to design instructional materials, and

    to guide instruction in the classroom and other settings

    (Joyce & Weil 1980, 1)

  • Pedagogical Modelsof purposive studying and meaningful learning

    that teachers, tutors and curriculum designers and students can apply in:

    designing, teaching, tutoring, evaluating and learning processes (Tissari, Vahtivuori-Hnninen, Vaattovaara, Ruokamo & Tella 2005)

  • Pedagogical Models in PracticeThe value of the pedagogical models comes to the fore above all in practice

    Three different ways of using the pedagogical models: planning of instruction on the basis of the model combination of models varied use of the models depending on the situation

    They can be combined and should in fact be adapted to fit in with the teachers own pedagogical thinking

  • Pedagogical Models Developed by CMP


  • Research Projects by CMPVIP (2013-2014) TEKES, (SAVI; AoF, TEKES, NSF)MediPro (2012-2014); ERDF, TEKES, municipalities and companies)Adiona (2012-2014; TraFi)Doctoral Programme for Multidisciplinary Research on Learning Environments (2002-05, 2006-09, 2010-2013; Academy of Finland and Ministry of Education)AC in Net (2012-2013; ESF)TravEd (2010-2012; ERDF, TEKES, municipalities and companies)MediPeda (2007-08-10; ERDF, TEKES, municipalities and companies)InnoPlay (2007-08-10; Tekes, municipalities and companies)GloVed (2008-2009; Centennial Foundation of the Finnish Technology Industries)MobIT (2007-09; Ministry of Education)Benedict (2006-07; Ministry for foreign affairs of Finland) PlayIT (2006; TEKES) Web-Seal (2006; Academy of Finland) LEVIKE (2004-07; ESF) Lets Play (2003-06; ESF, State Provincial Office of Lapland and Lappset Group Ltd.) JIBS Lapland (2003-04; EU) MOMENTS (2002-05; Academy of Finland, TEKES and companies) HelLa (2001-03; Ministry of Education)

  • Integrated model of network-based educationMOMENTS Metamodel (MM) Network-oriented study with simulations (NOSS) modelInnovation Education in Virtual Reality (InnoEd VR) model TML (Teaching and Meaningful Learning) modelTPL (Tutoring, playing and learning) modelCCLP (Co-Creative Learning Processes) modelRC (Reciprocal Creativity) modelPLP (Playful learning process) modelCPL (Creative and Playful Learning) modelGloVEd modelFTL (Facilitating, Training and Learning) modelThe Model for Enhanced Teaching and Meaningful e-Learning (ETMeL)The Model for Meaningful Work-based Mobile Learning (MWBML) Introduction, Simulation, Scenario, Debriefing (ISSD) Model Pedagogical Models by CMP

  • Design-Based Research (DBR)

    Involves developing, testing, investigating, and refining learning environment designs and theoretical constructs as well as illustrating and predicting how learning occurs (Barab & Squire, 2004; Design-based research collective 2003). Process proceeds through iterative cycles of design and implementation

    Leads to contextually-sensitive design principles and theories (Wang & Hannafin 2005, 7). It aims to improve simultaneously, both theory and local practices.

  • Figure 1. Integrated model of network-based education. Teaching-Studying and Learning processes (cf. Ruokamo et al. 2002; Vahtivuori et al. 2002; 2003).

  • Figure 2. MOMENTS Metamodel (MM). Descriptors of the Teaching-Studying-Learning process (Ruokamo & Tella 2005).

  • Figure 3. Teaching and Meaningful Learning (TML) model (Hakkarainen 2007; 2009; Hakkarainen, Saarelainen & Ruokamo 2009)

  • Figure 4. The model for ETMeL (Ruokamo, Hakkarainen & Eriksson 2012)

  • reflection and evaluation learning process what, how and why questions

    sports and games play physicality reflection, improvement

    fact-based/ fiction-based content creation exploration and validation of ideas

    knowledge base orientation to the process various methods

    The role of the teacher:

    Co-ordinatorTutorCo-creatorSupporterGuide FacilitatorPromoterInstructorKnowledge co-creation: small group and classroom levels

    The nature of learning

    PlayfulActiveCo-CreativeParticipative EmotionalNarrativeTransformativeHeuristicOrientation Co-Creation

    Game PlayElaboration

    Figure 5. Creative and Playful Learning Model (CPL) (cf. Kangas 2009; 2010a, c; Randolph, Kangas, Ruokamo & Hyvnen 2013)

  • Figure 6. Global Virtual Education (GloVEd) model (Keskitalo, Pyykk & Ruokamo 2011)

  • Figure 7. Redesigned pedagogical model for VR and simulation-based learning environment (Keskitalo, Ruokamo & Visnen 2010).

  • Figure 8. Refined pedagogical model for MWBML in tourism education (Vuojrvi, Eriksson & Ruokamo 2012)

  • Figure 9. Introduction, Simulation, Scenario, Debriefing (ISSD) Model (cf. Poikela, Ruokamo & Keskitalo 2014; Poikela, Ruokamo Ters )

  • Lessons Learned

  • Lessons Learned

    Developed pedagogical models need to be empirically tested and future developed during long term (at least 10 weeks) teaching experimentsEnough time should be quaranteed to be able to adopt the pedagogical model, new methods and tools to be used Teachers and students motivation and engagement are critical factors Teachers and students pedagogical and technical knowledge and skills -- in addition to domain specific knowledge and skills should be taken into accountBoth pedagogical and technological solutions should be made from teachers and students perspective so that they see them appropriate for them and for spesific learning purposes

  • Lessons Learned

    They should also see the importance to learn some generic knowledge and skills that could be transferred for future learning and practises Reflection and evaluation of the processes should be paid more attention toTechnical problems are always criticalGrouping of meaningful learning characteristics into wider themes should be done via statistical and content analyses In addition to students processes and outcomes learning results should also be measured What and how well they actually learn?At the moment meaningful mobile learning questionnaire is under construction to be used in international high school contexts

  • Future Plans

    Meaningful mobile learning survey -> International data collection for university students

    Model of the models to be published

    Commercializing of the models Trademarks

    Educational export business

  • Contact Information

  • Thank You for Your Attention!Centre for Media Pedagogy (CMP)!/CefMPFaculty of Education (FoE)University of Lapland (UoL)!/medu.ulapland

    P.O.Box 122, FI-96101 Rovaniemi, FINLANDTel. + 358 16 341 341Email: [email protected]

  • Hakkarainen, P., Saarelainen, T. & Ruokamo, H. 2009. Assessing Teaching and Students Meaningful Learning Processes in an E-Learning Course. In C. Spratt & P. Lajbcygier (Eds.) E-Learning Technologies and Evidence-Based Assessment Approaches. IGI Global, 2036.

    Keskitalo, T., Pyykk, E.,