Innovation-Decision processThe process through which an
individual (or other decision-making unit) passes from first
knowledge of an innovation, to forming an attitude toward the
innovation, to a decision to adopt or reject,to implementation of
the new idea, and to confirmation of this decision.
Innovation-Decision processWhy it is process?Because series of
action and choice over a period of time through which and
individual or other decision making unit passes from different
stages before to accept innovation
Why innovation decision process occurs ?Uncertainty And
Innovation Decision processFive stages:
1. Knowledge2. Persuasion3. Decision4. Implementation 5.
1 Knowledge2 Persuasion3Decision4Implementation5
Prior conditions: Previous practice Felt needs/problems
Innovativeness Norms of the social systemCommunication
*Diffusion Of Innovation*
Characteristics of InnovationRe-invention
DisenchantmentDissonance*Diffusion Of Innovation*
Process and types of decisionsOptionalCollectiveAuthoritySocial
systemExtent of Change agents promotional effortsCommunication
TrialabilityThe decision leads to adoption or rejectionOf these
Knowledge stage Three individual generalizations:Socioeconomic
statusPersonality variablesCommunication behaviorsFigure 1.
Reproduced from: childbehaviorsolution 2012 Occurs when an
individual learns of the innovations existence and gains some
understanding of how it functions. Mental activity is mainly
cognitive (Rogers 1995).- Use mass media channels as means (Haider
and Kreps 2004).
Knowledge stage Accidental knowledgeSelective exposure
Need vs innovation
What how and why about innovation
Knowledge stage types of knowledge
1. Awareness knowledge2.How to knowledge3. Principle
2. Persuasion stage Occurs when an individual forms a favorable
or unfavorable attitude toward the innovation. Five attributes of
the innovation affecting its rate of diffusion: relative advantage,
compatibility and so on. Mainly based on feelings Focus on
2. Persuasion stage
Affective Mentally application of innovation Active information
seeking about innovation evolution information what are
consequences of innovation ?Advantages and disadvantages of
innovation?From peer or opinion leaderKAP gapsPreventive
- Occurs when an individual engages in activities that lead to a
choice to adopt or reject the innovation.4. Decision stage
Adoption: make use of an innovation as the best course of action
available.Rejection: not to adopt an innovation.Active rejection:
considering and trying the innovation out on a limited basis, then
deciding not to adopt.Passive rejection (non-adoption): consists of
never really considering the use of the innovation. (Rogers
4. Decision stage
Small scale trail Or trail by other neighbor farmers
extension agent should do Free sample Demonstrationn
Occurs when an individual utilizes an innovation. However, the
degree of uncertainty about the expected consequences of an
innovation still exists. 3.ImplementationFigure 2. Reproduced from:
Certified Green Business 2012
3.Implementation stage Overt behavior Practical process
difference between decision and use of innovation due to many
factors Economical Unavailibility
3.Implementation stage Question is where I obtain it ?How to use
?What are problem and how to solve it ?
Need of technical assistance
Occurs when individuals seek reinforcement to the decision that
they have already made or reverses a previous decision to adopt or
reject the innovation if exposed to conflicting messages about the
innovation. Whether the final choice is adoption or rejection, it
will be a long term effect. 4. Confirmation stage
4. Confirmation stage
Dissonance Need of continues information about innovation after
adoption from escape to rumour
Discontinues Reject an innovation replacement
Innovation Decision period is the length of time required to
pass through innovation decision process .
It may be in days ,months or in years.
Less for earlier adopters.
Thus this period is a gestation period in which a new idea is
fermenting in individuals mind
Innovation Decision Period
Communication channels Mass media : knowledge stageInterpersonal
: persuasion stage
Cosmopolite : knowledge stage Localite : persuasion stage
CASE STUDY: DIFFUSION OF HYBRID SEED CORN IN IOWA, USA
-Hybrid seed corn: Introduced to Iowa farmers in 1928 and
remained as one of the most important new agricultural
-Characteristics:. Increased productivity by 20%.. Suitable for
mechanical corn pickers : Reduced the need for a large number of
farmers to harvest the corp.. More drought-resistant.
(Rogers 2003)Figure 3. Reproduced from Urban Farmer 2012Figure
4. Reproduced from Urban Farmer 2011
- In 1941, Ryan and Gross investigated on the diffusion of
hybrid seed corn in the area. In general, their findings suggested
(a) The diffusion process took 12 years to reach widespread
(b) The average farmer needed 7 years to progress from initial
awareness of the innovation to full-scale adoption.
Specifically, a qualitative research was conducted in 2
communities in Iowa and a total of 259 famers were interviewed to
understand farmers decision to adopt the hybrid seed corn.
Most farmer-respondents recognized that they went through a
series of stages.
1.Knowledge stage Salesmen from the seed corn company introduced
the innovation to Iowa farmers.
Influencing factors:Socioeconomic characteristics: The seed lost
it hybrid vigor after the first generation -> required annual
purchase -> costed quite amount of money given the Depression
Previous practice: Previously, farmers had selected the
best-looking corn plants to use as seed for the following years
-> the adoption of hybrid corn meant an important change in the
corn-growing behavior. Obstructed knowledge-gaining process. Slowed
down the diffusion process as a whole.
(Rogers, Singhal & Quinlan 2009)
2.Persuasion stageIowa farmers mentally applied the new idea to
their present or an anticipated future situation before deciding
whether or not to try it.
However, like any innovation, hybrid seed corn carried some
degree of uncertainty.
Sought social reinforcement for their attitude toward the
innovation by referring to the neighbors . The neighbor gave
meaning to the innovation, leading to the forming of positive
attitude and persuasion.
(Rogers, Singhal & Quinlan 2009)
The small-scale trial is often an important part of the decision
In 1930s, the seed corn salesmen gave a small bag of the new
seed, which was enough to plant about an acre of corn, to Iowa
farmers entering the decision stage.
A large enough trial to convince the farmer to adopt the new
idea on all of his corn acreage in the next few years.
(Rogers, Singhal & Quinlan 2009)
Implementation usually follows the decision stage rather
With such facilitations from the seed corn company, the
famers-respondents trialed the seed corn.
4.Implementation stage(Rogers, Singhal & Quinlan 2009)
- Innovators and early adopters were more likely to positively
confirm their decision to implement the innovation than later
adopters, meaning that the rate of adoption was faster. (Rogers,
Singhal & Quinlan 2009)
5.Confirmation stageFigure 5. Reproduced from Rogers 2003