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Innovation-Decision Process

Innovation decision process

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  • Innovation-Decision Process

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  • WINTERTemplate

    Innovation-Decision processThe process through which an individual (or other decision-making unit) passes from first knowledge of an innovation, to forming an attitude toward the innovation, to a decision to adopt or reject,to implementation of the new idea, and to confirmation of this decision.

    (Rogers 1995)

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  • Innovation-Decision processWhy it is process?Because series of action and choice over a period of time through which and individual or other decision making unit passes from different stages before to accept innovation

    Why innovation decision process occurs ?Uncertainty And newness

  • Innovation Decision processFive stages:

    1. Knowledge2. Persuasion3. Decision4. Implementation 5. Confirmation

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  • 1 Knowledge2 Persuasion3Decision4Implementation5 Confirmation

    Prior conditions: Previous practice Felt needs/problems Innovativeness Norms of the social systemCommunication ChannelsInnovation-Decision Process

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  • *Diffusion Of Innovation*

  • InterpersonalAttitudeUncertainty ReductionPerceived Characteristics of InnovationRe-invention InstitutionalizationDissonanceReplacement DisenchantmentDissonance*Diffusion Of Innovation*

  • *Diffusion Of Innovation*KnowledgeimplementationPersuasionDecisionConfirmationDecision Process and types of decisionsOptionalCollectiveAuthoritySocial systemExtent of Change agents promotional effortsCommunication ChannelRelative advantageCompatibilityObservabilityComplexityPerceived attributes of innovation

    TrialabilityThe decision leads to adoption or rejectionOf these methods

  • Knowledge stage Three individual generalizations:Socioeconomic statusPersonality variablesCommunication behaviorsFigure 1. Reproduced from: childbehaviorsolution 2012 Occurs when an individual learns of the innovations existence and gains some understanding of how it functions. Mental activity is mainly cognitive (Rogers 1995).- Use mass media channels as means (Haider and Kreps 2004).

    *http://childbehaviorsolution.blogspot.com/2012/01/tv-watching.html

  • Knowledge stage Accidental knowledgeSelective exposure

    Need vs innovation

    What how and why about innovation

  • Knowledge stage types of knowledge

    1. Awareness knowledge2.How to knowledge3. Principle knowledge

  • 2. Persuasion stage Occurs when an individual forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the innovation. Five attributes of the innovation affecting its rate of diffusion: relative advantage, compatibility and so on. Mainly based on feelings Focus on interpersonal channels

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  • 2. Persuasion stage

    Affective Mentally application of innovation Active information seeking about innovation evolution information what are consequences of innovation ?Advantages and disadvantages of innovation?From peer or opinion leaderKAP gapsPreventive innovation

  • - Occurs when an individual engages in activities that lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation.4. Decision stage Adoption: make use of an innovation as the best course of action available.Rejection: not to adopt an innovation.Active rejection: considering and trying the innovation out on a limited basis, then deciding not to adopt.Passive rejection (non-adoption): consists of never really considering the use of the innovation. (Rogers 1995)

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  • 4. Decision stage

    Small scale trail Or trail by other neighbor farmers

    extension agent should do Free sample Demonstrationn

  • Occurs when an individual utilizes an innovation. However, the degree of uncertainty about the expected consequences of an innovation still exists. 3.ImplementationFigure 2. Reproduced from: Certified Green Business 2012

    *http://www.smcsbdcgreen.org/certification-process/

  • 3.Implementation stage Overt behavior Practical process difference between decision and use of innovation due to many factors Economical Unavailibility

  • 3.Implementation stage Question is where I obtain it ?How to use ?What are problem and how to solve it ?

    Need of technical assistance

    Re invention

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    Occurs when individuals seek reinforcement to the decision that they have already made or reverses a previous decision to adopt or reject the innovation if exposed to conflicting messages about the innovation. Whether the final choice is adoption or rejection, it will be a long term effect. 4. Confirmation stage

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  • 4. Confirmation stage

    Dissonance Need of continues information about innovation after adoption from escape to rumour

    Discontinues Reject an innovation replacement discontinuanceDisenchantment discontinuance

  • Innovation Decision period is the length of time required to pass through innovation decision process .

    It may be in days ,months or in years.

    Less for earlier adopters.

    Thus this period is a gestation period in which a new idea is fermenting in individuals mind

    Innovation Decision Period

  • Communication channels Mass media : knowledge stageInterpersonal : persuasion stage

    Cosmopolite : knowledge stage Localite : persuasion stage

  • CASE STUDY: DIFFUSION OF HYBRID SEED CORN IN IOWA, USA

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  • -Hybrid seed corn: Introduced to Iowa farmers in 1928 and remained as one of the most important new agricultural technologies.

    -Characteristics:. Increased productivity by 20%.. Suitable for mechanical corn pickers : Reduced the need for a large number of farmers to harvest the corp.. More drought-resistant.

    (Rogers 2003)Figure 3. Reproduced from Urban Farmer 2012Figure 4. Reproduced from Urban Farmer 2011

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  • - In 1941, Ryan and Gross investigated on the diffusion of hybrid seed corn in the area. In general, their findings suggested that

    (a) The diffusion process took 12 years to reach widespread diffusion.

    (b) The average farmer needed 7 years to progress from initial awareness of the innovation to full-scale adoption.

    Specifically, a qualitative research was conducted in 2 communities in Iowa and a total of 259 famers were interviewed to understand farmers decision to adopt the hybrid seed corn.

    Most farmer-respondents recognized that they went through a series of stages.

    (Rogers 2003)

  • 1.Knowledge stage Salesmen from the seed corn company introduced the innovation to Iowa farmers.

    Influencing factors:Socioeconomic characteristics: The seed lost it hybrid vigor after the first generation -> required annual purchase -> costed quite amount of money given the Depression context.

    Previous practice: Previously, farmers had selected the best-looking corn plants to use as seed for the following years -> the adoption of hybrid corn meant an important change in the corn-growing behavior. Obstructed knowledge-gaining process. Slowed down the diffusion process as a whole.

    (Rogers, Singhal & Quinlan 2009)

  • 2.Persuasion stageIowa farmers mentally applied the new idea to their present or an anticipated future situation before deciding whether or not to try it.

    However, like any innovation, hybrid seed corn carried some degree of uncertainty.

    Sought social reinforcement for their attitude toward the innovation by referring to the neighbors . The neighbor gave meaning to the innovation, leading to the forming of positive attitude and persuasion.

    (Rogers, Singhal & Quinlan 2009)

  • The small-scale trial is often an important part of the decision to adopt.

    In 1930s, the seed corn salesmen gave a small bag of the new seed, which was enough to plant about an acre of corn, to Iowa farmers entering the decision stage.

    A large enough trial to convince the farmer to adopt the new idea on all of his corn acreage in the next few years.

    3.Decision stage

    (Rogers, Singhal & Quinlan 2009)

  • Implementation usually follows the decision stage rather directly.

    With such facilitations from the seed corn company, the famers-respondents trialed the seed corn.

    4.Implementation stage(Rogers, Singhal & Quinlan 2009)

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    - Innovators and early adopters were more likely to positively confirm their decision to implement the innovation than later adopters, meaning that the rate of adoption was faster. (Rogers, Singhal & Quinlan 2009)

    5.Confirmation stageFigure 5. Reproduced from Rogers 2003

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    *http://childbehaviorsolution.blogspot.com/2012/01/tv-watching.html*

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    *http://www.smcsbdcgreen.org/certification-process/*

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