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types of innovation decision

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DEPARTMENT OF EXTENSION EDUCATIONCourse No:Ext.503Types of innovation-decision

Submitted to; Submitted by; Dr: A.K. Godara Noor Agha (2015A147M)

Introduction An innovation is an idea, practice or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption. Perception is an activity through which an individual becomes aware of objects around oneself and of events taking place. The technologies, practices developed through research are innovations. These may be new varieties of crops and plants, new breeds of livestock, new chemicals and medicines, new technique of doing things etc. Farmers themselves may develop some new practices, which are also innovations programmes.

Types of innovation decisions

Authority Decision Collective DecisionOptional DecisionContingent Decision

1. Authority Innovation-DecisionChoices to adopt or reject an innovation are made by relatively few individuals in a system who possess power, status or technical expertise. There are at least two kinds of units.The adoption unit which is an individual group or other unit adopts the innovation.The decision unit which is an individual group or other unit that has a position of higher authority than the adoption unit and which makes the final decision as to whether the adoption unit will adopt or reject the innovation.

2. Collective Innovation- Decision

Choices to adopt or reject an innovation are made by consensus among the members of a system. All units of the system must conform to the systems decision once it is made.This decision is made by collectively all individuals of a social system.

Stages in Collective Decision- Making

Stimulation of interest in the need for the new idea (by stimulator) Initiation of the new idea in the social system (by initiators) Legitimation of the idea in the social system (by legitimizer) Decision to act (by members of the social system) Action or execution of the new idea.

Participation in Collective DecisionsAt the fourth stage in the collective decision-making process, the focus is upon the decision to act by members of the social system. It includes, Participation Satisfaction Member acceptance of collective decisions Member cohesion

Participation: Participation plays a major role in the decision to act. Participation is the degree to which members of a social system are involved in the decision making process.Satisfaction: Satisfaction is based on the type of participation. Member Acceptance of Collective Decisions: The average member of a social system has an important role to play in collective decisions. After a system legitimizers have ruled on the innovation, it is up to the members to accept or reject that decision.

Member cohesion: Not only does member acceptance of collective decisions vary with participation but also with the degree to which the individual perceives himself to be attached to the group. Member acceptance of collective decision is positively related to member cohesion with the social system.

3. Optional Innovation- Decision

The optional innovation decisions are choices to adopt or reject an innovation that are made by an individual independent of the decisions of the other systems members.

4. Contingent Innovation Decision

It is a choice to adopt or reject which can be made only after a prior innovation decision. For example a decision to cultivate tobacco, can be made by a farmer, only after getting permission from the Tobacco Board. or an individual member of a social system may be free to adopt or not to adopt a new idea only after his/her systems innovation decision