DEPARTMENT OF EXTENSION EDUCATIONCourse No:Ext.503Types of
Submitted to; Submitted by; Dr: A.K. Godara Noor Agha
Introduction An innovation is an idea, practice or object that
is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption.
Perception is an activity through which an individual becomes aware
of objects around oneself and of events taking place. The
technologies, practices developed through research are innovations.
These may be new varieties of crops and plants, new breeds of
livestock, new chemicals and medicines, new technique of doing
things etc. Farmers themselves may develop some new practices,
which are also innovations programmes.
Types of innovation decisions
Authority Decision Collective DecisionOptional
1. Authority Innovation-DecisionChoices to adopt or reject an
innovation are made by relatively few individuals in a system who
possess power, status or technical expertise. There are at least
two kinds of units.The adoption unit which is an individual group
or other unit adopts the innovation.The decision unit which is an
individual group or other unit that has a position of higher
authority than the adoption unit and which makes the final decision
as to whether the adoption unit will adopt or reject the
2. Collective Innovation- Decision
Choices to adopt or reject an innovation are made by consensus
among the members of a system. All units of the system must conform
to the systems decision once it is made.This decision is made by
collectively all individuals of a social system.
Stages in Collective Decision- Making
Stimulation of interest in the need for the new idea (by
stimulator) Initiation of the new idea in the social system (by
initiators) Legitimation of the idea in the social system (by
legitimizer) Decision to act (by members of the social system)
Action or execution of the new idea.
Participation in Collective DecisionsAt the fourth stage in the
collective decision-making process, the focus is upon the decision
to act by members of the social system. It includes, Participation
Satisfaction Member acceptance of collective decisions Member
Participation: Participation plays a major role in the decision
to act. Participation is the degree to which members of a social
system are involved in the decision making process.Satisfaction:
Satisfaction is based on the type of participation. Member
Acceptance of Collective Decisions: The average member of a social
system has an important role to play in collective decisions. After
a system legitimizers have ruled on the innovation, it is up to the
members to accept or reject that decision.
Member cohesion: Not only does member acceptance of collective
decisions vary with participation but also with the degree to which
the individual perceives himself to be attached to the group.
Member acceptance of collective decision is positively related to
member cohesion with the social system.
3. Optional Innovation- Decision
The optional innovation decisions are choices to adopt or reject
an innovation that are made by an individual independent of the
decisions of the other systems members.
4. Contingent Innovation Decision
It is a choice to adopt or reject which can be made only after a
prior innovation decision. For example a decision to cultivate
tobacco, can be made by a farmer, only after getting permission
from the Tobacco Board. or an individual member of a social system
may be free to adopt or not to adopt a new idea only after his/her
systems innovation decision