Who?King John, the English Barons (Nobles) and the Church (Pope Innocent III)
3. John becomes King and loses territories tothe French
King John inherited the of his Norman father king Henry II in 1200 AD, after a struggle with his brother Richard I. His lands included territories in Northern France.
The war between England and France was renewed after Johns marriage to Isabella.
John lost Normandy in in 1204 AD as well as other territories to king Philip of France.
King JohnKing Richard IKing Henry II 4. Johns Damaged prestige
Johns prestige and reputation were ruined due to the following factors:
Hislossesin the war with France, including Normandy. His losses drove him to overtax his barons and abuse the power of the Royal Courts.
Conflicts with the Church:In March 1208, Pope Innocent III laid an interdict on England and excommunicated John (November 1209). John accepted the Popes terms and the interdict was dissolved by 1213.
John was accused of tyranny, cruelty and irreligion.
King Phillip II of France Pope Innocent III 5. Signing the Magna Carta in 1215 AD
Faced with rebellions and pressure from the church and the Barons (led by Simon De Montfort), John signed thefirst draftof the Magna Carta.
6. The Essence(true meaning) of the MagnaCarta
"No free man shall be seized or imprisoned, or stripped of his rights or possessions, or outlawed or exiled, nor will we proceed with force against him, except by the lawful judgment of his equals or by the law of the land. To no one will we sell, to no one deny or delay right or justice."
7. Views on the Magna Carta
1:The original charter wasreactionaryand only guaranteed the rights of the barons. The document was vague and did not really limit the Kings power or grant true citizenship rights to the English people
2:The revised charter is aprogressivedocument.It is a symbol of the supremacy of the constitution/rule of law over the king. The charter prevented taxation without permission from the representatives of the people, it guaranteed trial by jury, and even invested the Houseof Commons.
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